Химия Answer the questions просмотров - 217
AND THE STATES OF MATTER
THE MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER
Molecules are too small and are not seen under the most powerful microscope, but the movement of molecules can be made more real by a study of the so-called Brownian movement. Robert Brown, a botanist, observed in 1827 that small solid particles suspended in a liquid were in continual movement. In fact the chief characteristic of matter is its eternal restlessness, and the degree of restlessness is determined by the state of matter under observation; i.e. whether it is solid, liquid or gas. In gases molecules lead more or less independent existence and are moving with high speed in all directions; and the molecules must be continually colliding with each other and striking the walls of the vessel, and so exert pressure. A gas, therefore, has no definite shape or volume, and can be readily compressed. The molecules of a liquid can move sufficiently freely and allow the liquid to take up the shape of the vessel; but the attractive forces between the molecules, which are much closer together and moving more slowly than in a gas, do not permit the liquid to be compressed to any extent nor to vary its volume. A liquid, therefore, has a definite volume but not fixed shape, and is slightly compressible. In solids the freedom of the molecules must be very restricted and their motion is probably confined to small oscillations only, and must be greatly hampered by the nearness of neighbouring molecules. A solid, therefore, has both definite shape and volume, and is very difficult to compress. The rates of motion of molecules have an important influence on chemical changes. They occur most readily when molecules are moving freely, i.e. in gases; and chemical activity is least pronounced in solids, where the movement of molecules is slight.
|confine - обмежувати neighbouring - сусідній continual – безперервний, постійний observe- спостерігати hamper - ускладнювати оссur – траплятися, мати місце oscillation - коливання hardly - ледве||pressure - тиск probably - можливо slight - незначний readily - легко suspend- вішати, підвішувати restlessness - рухомість therefore - відповідно vessel - посудина restricted – обмежений|
1. How can the movement of molecules be studied?
2. Why does gas have neither definite shape nor volume?
3. Why is liquid slightly compressible?
4. Why is the freedom of molecules in solids very restricted?
5. Why is it very difficult to compress a solid?
6. In what substances do chemical changes occur most readily?
2. Give English equivalents:
1. потужний мікроскоп а. under observation
2. постійний рух b. independent existence
3. під наглядом c. high speed
4. незалежне існування d. continual movement
5. велика швидкість e. powerful microscope
3. Give Ukrainian equivalents:
1. with each other а. сила тяжіння
2. to exert pressure b. змінювати об’єм
3. the attractive force c. постійна форма
4. to vary one's volume d. чинити тиск
5. a fixed shape e. один з одним
4. Translate the sentences:
1. Matter is constantly undergoing changes. 2. The concept of matter is intuitive and yet it is somewhat difficult for definition. 3. Forms of matter may change, but matter itself is neither destroyed nor created. 4. Newton's Law of universal gravitation is applied to matter in general. 5. About 90% of the matter of the Sun is hydrogen. 6. Matter is now regarded as being discontinuous. 7. Matter occupies space and it possesses mass. 8. Temperature is an intensive property; it doesn't matter how much substance is present. 9. As a matter of fact Robert Brown observed the movement of small solid particles in liquid quite unexpectedly. 10. Gas has no definite shape or volume. No matter what vessel it is placed in, the whole space of the vessel is occupied by gas. 11. The effect of continual movement of small solid particles suspended in a liquid is referred to as Brownian movement.1 2. His discovery is referred to in every text-book on physics. 13. This phenomenon is referred to as pressure exerted by gas. 14. The results of their experiments were referred to at the conference.
Dates Ordinal numbers Cardinal numbers Exercise 5. Write down the following in figures.1. twenty-five million seven hundred thirty-two thousand 2. ten million five hundred sixty-seven thousand five hundred fifty-two 3. two million one hundred fifty thousand one hundred thirty-one 4. one million six hundred eighty-two thousand twelve 5. one point three million 6. sixty-seven thousand and five 7. two hundred thousand ninety-five 8. forty-five... [читать подробенее]
1. Exercise 2. Have a look at the adverbs in bolt. Find them in the UNIT and guess their meaning. Read the quotations and translate them. Exercise 1. Find the Russian equivalent. 1. to indulge in 2. to prefer 3. to introduce 4. to expect 5. to proffer 6. to squeeze 7. to exchange 8. to gain A. расценивать B. выражать C. предлагать D. приобретать E. кричать F. следовать G. избегать H.... [читать подробенее]
Ex. 59. Complete the following sentences about the important moments in history using the Past Continuous form of the verbs in brackets. Ex. 58Read the story and rewrite it in the past tense. Ex.57 Using the Past Continuous tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. Ex.56 Using the Past Continuous tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. Then rewrite the following affirmative statements as questions... [читать подробенее]
Ex. 48. Explain the use of the Simple Past in the following sentences. The First TV Soap Opera Ex. 47. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple. The first TV soap opera (a) ……….. (appear) on American television just after the Second World War. Its name (b) ………. (be) Faraway Hill and it (c) ……….. (begin) on the 2nd of October, 1946. A famous Broadway actress, Flora Campbell, (d) ………… (play) Karen St. John, a rich New York woman who (e) ……….... [читать подробенее]
EQUITY In a general sense equity means fairness. In English law, equity means that body of rules originally enforced only by the Court of Chancery. Equity has been described as “a gloss (meaning a supplement) on the common law”, filling in the gaps and making the English legal system more complete. Petitions from persons unable to obtain justice in the common law courts were sent to the King as “fountain of justice”. These petitions were sometimes examined by the King and Council... [читать подробенее]
Task 12. Fill in the blanks. Task 11. Guess the meaning of the international words using in the text. Task 10. Make up the questions. SUBMISSION SEAT 1) something to sitting on, e.g. a chair 2) a place where something is, or is located or based 3) a parliamentary constituency 4) membership in legislative body1) act of accepting the power or authority of another 2) legal theory, opinion presented to a judge or jury 3) the act of presenting something, e.g. a... [читать подробенее]
Task 10. Make up sentences using the following expressions. Judicial branch, according to, the highest tribunal, Chief Justice, to be appointed by, to be approved by, to alter, successful experience, to pass laws, to be authorized, principal duty, to be at stake. 1. What responsibility does the judicial branch have? 2. What kind of court is the judicial power vested in according to the Constitution? 3. Could you describe the Supreme Court of the USA? 4. What do you know about the... [читать подробенее]
Part two Discuss the following before you listen. You will hear an interview with Tim Rice, who wrote the lyrics for Part one The writerJesus Christ Superstar. It was first performed in the 1970s, but hasn’t been performed many times since. Andrew Lloyd Webber composed the music. a) What are some of the main events in the life of Jesus Christ? Who were some of the main characters in his life? b) Why do you think Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd... [читать подробенее]
Ex. 3. Read and translate the text. The Randolf sisters, Sadie and Esther, live just a block away from each other. Sadie constantly complains that the people in town are cold and unfriendly, while Esther finds them warm and pleasant. Although Sadie can’t see it, the difference is in the way they approach those people. Sadie and her husband have a lovely house. It’s filled with beautiful antique furniture and glassware that is so fragile it could easily be broken by a careless guest... [читать подробенее]
Discussion Ex. 1. Read and translate the text. Ex. 2.Work in pairs. Ex. 1. Answer the questions. Discussion 1. What are the three types of housing mentioned? 2. What is the ratio of houses to flats in Britain? 3. What has happened to home ownership in Britain? 4. What sort of people in the UK are most and least likely to own their houses? 5. Explain the following: sheltered housing, a mortgage, a slum area.1. What differences are there between housing in... [читать подробенее]