Химия Answer the questions просмотров - 170
Matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms. The atom is a complex unit of various particles, the most important of which are electrons, protons, and neutrons. The difference between atoms of different elements is due to differences in the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and to differences in the arrangement of the electrons surrounding the nucleus. The mass of the atom is concentrated almost entirely in the nucleus.
The chemical properties of different elements can be explained by the structure of the atom. Chemical changes involve a shifting of outer (valence) electrons so that a shell is achieved. The activity of metals and non-metals is related to the size of the atom and to the number of electrons in the external orbit. The valence or combining capacity of an atom is determined by the number of electrons it gains, loses or shares in chemical combinations with atoms of other elements. Atoms also may be joined to other atoms by sharing pairs of electrons. This process produces covalent compounds. These are generally gases or liquids with low boiling points. Oxidation involves the loss of electrons by the element. The process is accompanied by an algebraic increase in valence. Reduction, on the other hand, involves a gain of electrons by the substance reduced. This process is accompanied by an algebraic decrease in valence.
|сapacity - здатність proton - протон complex - складний reduction - відновлення electron- електрон relate - мати відношення entirely - повністю share- поділяти explain - пояснювати shell - оболонка||gain - отримувати shift - зрушення surround- оточувати join - поєднувати tiny- найдрібніший lose- втрачати unit - одиниця outer - зовнішній various - різноманітний oxidation - окислення|
1. What is matter composed of?
2. What is the atom?
3. What do you know about electrons, protons, neutrons?
4. Where is the mass of the atom concentrated?
5. How is the valence determined?
6. What process produces covalent compounds?
2. Give Ukrainian equivalents:
1. tiny particle а. обумовлюватися
2. complex unit b. розташування електронів
3. to be due to c. здатність поєднуватися
4. arrangement of electrons d. складна одиниця
5. a shifting of electrons e. найменша частка
6. combining capacity f. зрушення електронів
3. Give English equivalents:
1. ковалентні сполуки а. size of an atom
2. точка кипіння b. the number of protons
3. відновлена речовина c. covalent compounds
4. хімічні перетворення d. boiling point
5. розмір атома e. the substance reduced
6. кількість протонів f. chemical changes
4. Give synonyms:
matter, to make up, various, due to, capacity, different, to compose, substance, thanks to, ability.
5. Give antonyms:
to involve, outside, to gain, to join, to increase, to separate, to lose, inside, to evolve, to decrease.
6. Translate the sentences:
1. The atoms of sodium and chlorine have each their number of electrons. 2. A number of conditions must be fulfilled simultaneously in this operation. 3. The surface of water loses quite a number of heats in autumn. 4. The simplest formula of a compound expresses the ratio of the numbers of the separate atoms contained in the molecule of a compound.
7. Translate the sentences:
1. На його дослід спираються у цій статті. 2 На результати наших дослідів можна покластися. 3. В цьому розділі мова йде про броунівський рух. 4. Йому дали новий журнал. 5. Нам продемонстрували нову лабораторію. 6. Ця наукова конференція проводиться в нашому інституті щорічно. 7. В нашому місті зараз будується хімічний завод. 8. Наша лабораторія відкрита у цьому році. 9. Коли ми переїхали у це місто, завод ще будувався. 10. Хімічний завод був побудований ще до того, як ми сюди переїхали. 11. Будівля хімічної лабораторії була побудована в минулому році. 12. У наступному році нам відкриють сучасну лабораторію.
Dates Ordinal numbers Cardinal numbers Exercise 5. Write down the following in figures.1. twenty-five million seven hundred thirty-two thousand 2. ten million five hundred sixty-seven thousand five hundred fifty-two 3. two million one hundred fifty thousand one hundred thirty-one 4. one million six hundred eighty-two thousand twelve 5. one point three million 6. sixty-seven thousand and five 7. two hundred thousand ninety-five 8. forty-five... [читать подробенее]
1. Exercise 2. Have a look at the adverbs in bolt. Find them in the UNIT and guess their meaning. Read the quotations and translate them. Exercise 1. Find the Russian equivalent. 1. to indulge in 2. to prefer 3. to introduce 4. to expect 5. to proffer 6. to squeeze 7. to exchange 8. to gain A. расценивать B. выражать C. предлагать D. приобретать E. кричать F. следовать G. избегать H.... [читать подробенее]
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Ex. 48. Explain the use of the Simple Past in the following sentences. The First TV Soap Opera Ex. 47. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple. The first TV soap opera (a) ……….. (appear) on American television just after the Second World War. Its name (b) ………. (be) Faraway Hill and it (c) ……….. (begin) on the 2nd of October, 1946. A famous Broadway actress, Flora Campbell, (d) ………… (play) Karen St. John, a rich New York woman who (e) ……….... [читать подробенее]
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Task 12. Fill in the blanks. Task 11. Guess the meaning of the international words using in the text. Task 10. Make up the questions. SUBMISSION SEAT 1) something to sitting on, e.g. a chair 2) a place where something is, or is located or based 3) a parliamentary constituency 4) membership in legislative body1) act of accepting the power or authority of another 2) legal theory, opinion presented to a judge or jury 3) the act of presenting something, e.g. a... [читать подробенее]
Task 10. Make up sentences using the following expressions. Judicial branch, according to, the highest tribunal, Chief Justice, to be appointed by, to be approved by, to alter, successful experience, to pass laws, to be authorized, principal duty, to be at stake. 1. What responsibility does the judicial branch have? 2. What kind of court is the judicial power vested in according to the Constitution? 3. Could you describe the Supreme Court of the USA? 4. What do you know about the... [читать подробенее]
Part two Discuss the following before you listen. You will hear an interview with Tim Rice, who wrote the lyrics for Part one The writerJesus Christ Superstar. It was first performed in the 1970s, but hasn’t been performed many times since. Andrew Lloyd Webber composed the music. a) What are some of the main events in the life of Jesus Christ? Who were some of the main characters in his life? b) Why do you think Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd... [читать подробенее]
Ex. 3. Read and translate the text. The Randolf sisters, Sadie and Esther, live just a block away from each other. Sadie constantly complains that the people in town are cold and unfriendly, while Esther finds them warm and pleasant. Although Sadie can’t see it, the difference is in the way they approach those people. Sadie and her husband have a lovely house. It’s filled with beautiful antique furniture and glassware that is so fragile it could easily be broken by a careless guest... [читать подробенее]
Discussion Ex. 1. Read and translate the text. Ex. 2.Work in pairs. Ex. 1. Answer the questions. Discussion 1. What are the three types of housing mentioned? 2. What is the ratio of houses to flats in Britain? 3. What has happened to home ownership in Britain? 4. What sort of people in the UK are most and least likely to own their houses? 5. Explain the following: sheltered housing, a mortgage, a slum area.1. What differences are there between housing in... [читать подробенее]