Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.

Химия Answer the questions
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Matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms. The atom is a complex unit of various particles, the most important of which are electrons, protons, and neutrons. The difference between atoms of different elements is due to differences in the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and to differences in the arrangement of the electrons surrounding the nucleus. The mass of the atom is concentrated almost entirely in the nucleus.

The chemical properties of different elements can be explained by the structure of the atom. Chemical changes involve a shifting of outer (valence) electrons so that a shell is achieved. The activity of metals and non-metals is related to the size of the atom and to the number of electrons in the external orbit. The valence or combining capacity of an atom is determined by the number of electrons it gains, loses or shares in chemical combinations with atoms of other elements. Atoms also may be joined to other atoms by sharing pairs of electrons. This process produces covalent compounds. These are generally gases or liquids with low boiling points. Oxidation involves the loss of electrons by the element. The process is accompanied by an algebraic increase in valence. Reduction, on the other hand, involves a gain of electrons by the substance reduced. This process is accompanied by an algebraic decrease in valence.

сapacity - здатність proton - протон complex - складний reduction - відновлення electron- елœектрон relate - мати відношення entirely - повністю share- поділяти explain - пояснювати shell - оболонка gain - отримувати shift - зрушення surround- оточувати join - поєднувати tiny- найдрібніший lose- втрачати unit - одиниця outer - зовнішній various - різноманітний oxidation - окислення

1. What is matter composed of?

2. What is the atom?

3. What do you know about electrons, protons, neutrons?

4. Where is the mass of the atom concentrated?

5. How is the valence determined?

6. What process produces covalent compounds?

2. Give Ukrainian equivalents:

1. tiny particle а. обумовлюватися

2. complex unit b. розташування елœектронів

3. to be due to c. здатність поєднуватися

4. arrangement of electrons d. складна одиниця

5. a shifting of electrons e. найменша частка

6. combining capacity f. зрушення елœектронів

3. Give English equivalents:

1. ковалентні сполуки а. size of an atom

2. точка кипіння b. the number of protons

3. відновлена речовина c. covalent compounds

4. хімічні перетворення d. boiling point

5. розмір атома e. the substance reduced

6. кількість протонів f. chemical changes

4. Give synonyms:

matter, to make up, various, due to, capacity, different, to compose, substance, thanks to, ability.

5. Give antonyms:

to involve, outside, to gain, to join, to increase, to separate, to lose, inside, to evolve, to decrease.

6. Translate the sentences:

1. The atoms of sodium and chlorine have each their number of electrons. 2. A number of conditions must be fulfilled simultaneously in this operation. 3. The surface of water loses quite a number of heats in autumn. 4. The simplest formula of a compound expresses the ratio of the numbers of the separate atoms contained in the molecule of a compound.

7. Translate the sentences:

1. На його дослід спираються у цій статті. 2 На результати наших дослідів можна покластися. 3. В цьому розділі мова йде про броунівський рух. 4. Йому дали новий журнал. 5. Нам продемонстрували нову лабораторію. 6. Ця наукова конференція проводиться в нашому інституті щорічно. 7. В нашому місті зараз будується хімічний завод. 8. Наша лабораторія відкрита у цьому році. 9. Коли ми переїхали у це місто, завод ще будувався. 10. Хімічний завод був побудований ще до того, як ми сюди переїхали. 11. Будівля хімічної лабораторії була побудована в минулому році. 12. У наступному році нам відкриють сучасну лабораторію.

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