Химия Answer the questions просмотров - 195
MICROBIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
The synthetic capabilities of microorganisms are not confined to food, drink and pharmaceuticals. Microorganisms are known also to produce industrial chemicals that can either serve as or be employed to make solvents, lubricants, plastics, surface coatings, explosives, etc. often an organic substance with industrial applications can be made either biologically or by chemical synthesis, the decision to make it one way or the other being essentially an economic one. A major consideration proves to be the cost of the raw materials. In microbiological fermentation the chief raw material has been found to be the growth substrate, it usually being starch. In chemical synthesis the principal raw material has been found to be petroleum or a derivative of it. The efficiency of the process must be taken into account. Another factor to be taken into account is the cost of recovering the product from the fermentation medium. One must also weight the potential value of by-products, and the cost of disposing wastes.
Microorganisms are known to produce some 200 substances of commercial value, only a few of them being currently made by biological methods in industry, they include ethanol, n-butanol, acetone, acetic acid, amino acids and enzymes. Scientists consider microorganisms to have a larger role in many industries. With the new genetic methods the microbiologists and chemists are able to replace an existing pathway with a new one. To put it another way, they can construct organisms that have new characteristics and capabilities. Thus microbiological fermentation in conjunction with the new techniques could contribute significantly to the production of three broad classes of industrial chemicals: aliphatic organic compounds, amino acids and enzymes.
Enzymes can catalyze both the making and the braking of chemical bonds. Each enzyme is stated to act only on a particular substrate molecule. Commercially produced enzymes are playing an increasing role in medical diagnosis.
|capability – здатність pharmaceutical – фармацевтичний serve – служити lubricant – мастило extractant – екстракт adhesive – липкий||explosive – вибуховий substrate– основа starch – крохмаль medium – середовище; розчинник acetone – ацетон|
1. What do microorganisms produce?
2. How can an organic substance with industrial applications be made?
3. What is the major consideration?
4. What is the chief raw material in microbiological fermentation?
5. What is the principal raw material in chemical synthesis?
6. How many substances are known to be produced by microorganisms?
7. What do scientists think about microorganisms?
8. What three broad classes of industrial chemicals do you know?
2. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian, mind the sentences of the predicate:
1. For nearly a century the scientists working with food have been trying to understand more fully the role of microorganisms in fermentation. 2. The rising cost of petroleum has made the product less competitive. 3. The introduction of microbiology into the pharmaceutical industry has brought about a transformation profound enough to be called a revolution. 4. They have been working at the problem involved since 2000, but still much is to be done. 5. Recently it has become widely accepted to use this technique in determining the weight of some substances. 6. This view of conservation laws has been radically changed by the development of the modern theories of elementary-particle interaction. 7. He had been carrying out the experiment for 2 hours when I came to the laboratory. 8. A great number of foreign scientists have visited our laboratory as it is considered to be the best one in our Research Institute. 9. Our chemists have solved a great number of urgent problems in the field of environmental protection lately. 10. I was asked how long I had been working at the plant. 11. The new apparatus had already been installed in our shop by the end of November. 12. The work hasn’t been finished yet, we have to continue experimenting.
3. Translate the following sentences into English, mind the use of the tenses:
1. З вересня він відвідує лекції з хімії. 2. З вересня він відвідав декілька лекцій. 3. В минулому році він відвідав декілька лекцій із загальної хімії. 4. До грудня він зробив цілу низку експериментів. 5. Коли я став до роботи, він вже закінчив дослідження. 6. Вже три роки він вивчає фізичну хімію. 7. Нещодавно студенти відвідали сучасну лабораторію. 8. У минулому році ми відвідали декілька сучасних заводів. 9. Коли я зайшов до лабораторії, він вже годину проводив дослідження. 10. Вчора я закінчив доповідь про розвиток хімії полімерів в Україні.
Dates Ordinal numbers Cardinal numbers Exercise 5. Write down the following in figures.1. twenty-five million seven hundred thirty-two thousand 2. ten million five hundred sixty-seven thousand five hundred fifty-two 3. two million one hundred fifty thousand one hundred thirty-one 4. one million six hundred eighty-two thousand twelve 5. one point three million 6. sixty-seven thousand and five 7. two hundred thousand ninety-five 8. forty-five... [читать подробенее]
1. Exercise 2. Have a look at the adverbs in bolt. Find them in the UNIT and guess their meaning. Read the quotations and translate them. Exercise 1. Find the Russian equivalent. 1. to indulge in 2. to prefer 3. to introduce 4. to expect 5. to proffer 6. to squeeze 7. to exchange 8. to gain A. расценивать B. выражать C. предлагать D. приобретать E. кричать F. следовать G. избегать H.... [читать подробенее]
Ex. 59. Complete the following sentences about the important moments in history using the Past Continuous form of the verbs in brackets. Ex. 58Read the story and rewrite it in the past tense. Ex.57 Using the Past Continuous tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. Ex.56 Using the Past Continuous tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. Then rewrite the following affirmative statements as questions... [читать подробенее]
Ex. 48. Explain the use of the Simple Past in the following sentences. The First TV Soap Opera Ex. 47. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple. The first TV soap opera (a) ……….. (appear) on American television just after the Second World War. Its name (b) ………. (be) Faraway Hill and it (c) ……….. (begin) on the 2nd of October, 1946. A famous Broadway actress, Flora Campbell, (d) ………… (play) Karen St. John, a rich New York woman who (e) ……….... [читать подробенее]
EQUITY In a general sense equity means fairness. In English law, equity means that body of rules originally enforced only by the Court of Chancery. Equity has been described as “a gloss (meaning a supplement) on the common law”, filling in the gaps and making the English legal system more complete. Petitions from persons unable to obtain justice in the common law courts were sent to the King as “fountain of justice”. These petitions were sometimes examined by the King and Council... [читать подробенее]
Task 12. Fill in the blanks. Task 11. Guess the meaning of the international words using in the text. Task 10. Make up the questions. SUBMISSION SEAT 1) something to sitting on, e.g. a chair 2) a place where something is, or is located or based 3) a parliamentary constituency 4) membership in legislative body1) act of accepting the power or authority of another 2) legal theory, opinion presented to a judge or jury 3) the act of presenting something, e.g. a... [читать подробенее]
Task 10. Make up sentences using the following expressions. Judicial branch, according to, the highest tribunal, Chief Justice, to be appointed by, to be approved by, to alter, successful experience, to pass laws, to be authorized, principal duty, to be at stake. 1. What responsibility does the judicial branch have? 2. What kind of court is the judicial power vested in according to the Constitution? 3. Could you describe the Supreme Court of the USA? 4. What do you know about the... [читать подробенее]
Part two Discuss the following before you listen. You will hear an interview with Tim Rice, who wrote the lyrics for Part one The writerJesus Christ Superstar. It was first performed in the 1970s, but hasn’t been performed many times since. Andrew Lloyd Webber composed the music. a) What are some of the main events in the life of Jesus Christ? Who were some of the main characters in his life? b) Why do you think Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd... [читать подробенее]
Ex. 3. Read and translate the text. The Randolf sisters, Sadie and Esther, live just a block away from each other. Sadie constantly complains that the people in town are cold and unfriendly, while Esther finds them warm and pleasant. Although Sadie can’t see it, the difference is in the way they approach those people. Sadie and her husband have a lovely house. It’s filled with beautiful antique furniture and glassware that is so fragile it could easily be broken by a careless guest... [читать подробенее]
Discussion Ex. 1. Read and translate the text. Ex. 2.Work in pairs. Ex. 1. Answer the questions. Discussion 1. What are the three types of housing mentioned? 2. What is the ratio of houses to flats in Britain? 3. What has happened to home ownership in Britain? 4. What sort of people in the UK are most and least likely to own their houses? 5. Explain the following: sheltered housing, a mortgage, a slum area.1. What differences are there between housing in... [читать подробенее]