Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.

Химия Answer the questions
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The synthetic capabilities of microorganisms are not confined to food, drink and pharmaceuticals. Microorganisms are known also to produce industrial chemicals that can either serve as or be employed to make solvents, lubricants, plastics, surface coatings, explosives, etc. often an organic substance with industrial applications can be made either biologically or by chemical synthesis, the decision to make it one way or the other being essentially an economic one. A major consideration proves to be the cost of the raw materials. In microbiological fermentation the chief raw material has been found to be the growth substrate, it usually being starch. In chemical synthesis the principal raw material has been found to be petroleum or a derivative of it. The efficiency of the process must be taken into account. Another factor to be taken into account is the cost of recovering the product from the fermentation medium. One must also weight the potential value of by-products, and the cost of disposing wastes.

Microorganisms are known to produce some 200 substances of commercial value, only a few of them being currently made by biological methods in industry, they include ethanol, n-butanol, acetone, acetic acid, amino acids and enzymes. Scientists consider microorganisms to have a larger role in many industries. With the new genetic methods the microbiologists and chemists are able to replace an existing pathway with a new one. To put it another way, they can construct organisms that have new characteristics and capabilities. Thus microbiological fermentation in conjunction with the new techniques could contribute significantly to the production of three broad classes of industrial chemicals: aliphatic organic compounds, amino acids and enzymes.

Enzymes can catalyze both the making and the braking of chemical bonds. Each enzyme is stated to act only on a particular substrate molecule. Commercially produced enzymes are playing an increasing role in medical diagnosis.

capability – здатність pharmaceutical – фармацевтичний serve – служити lubricant – мастило extractant – екстракт adhesive – липкий explosive – вибуховий substrate– основа starch – крохмаль medium – середовище; розчинник acetone – ацетон

1. What do microorganisms produce?

2. How can an organic substance with industrial applications be made?

3. What is the major consideration?

4. What is the chief raw material in microbiological fermentation?

5. What is the principal raw material in chemical synthesis?

6. How many substances are known to be produced by microorganisms?

7. What do scientists think about microorganisms?

8. What three broad classes of industrial chemicals do you know?

2. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian, mind the sentences of the predicate:

1. For nearly a century the scientists working with food have been trying to understand more fully the role of microorganisms in fermentation. 2. The rising cost of petroleum has made the product less competitive. 3. The introduction of microbiology into the pharmaceutical industry has brought about a transformation profound enough to be called a revolution. 4. They have been working at the problem involved since 2000, but still much is to be done. 5. Recently it has become widely accepted to use this technique in determining the weight of some substances. 6. This view of conservation laws has been radically changed by the development of the modern theories of elementary-particle interaction. 7. He had been carrying out the experiment for 2 hours when I came to the laboratory. 8. A great number of foreign scientists have visited our laboratory as it is considered to be the best one in our Research Institute. 9. Our chemists have solved a great number of urgent problems in the field of environmental protection lately. 10. I was asked how long I had been working at the plant. 11. The new apparatus had already been installed in our shop by the end of November. 12. The work hasn’t been finished yet, we have to continue experimenting.

3. Translate the following sentences into English, mind the use of the tenses:

1. З вересня він відвідує лекції з хімії. 2. З вересня він відвідав декілька лекцій. 3. В минулому році він відвідав декілька лекцій із загальної хімії. 4. До грудня він зробив цілу низку експериментів. 5. Коли я став до роботи, він вже закінчив дослідження. 6. Вже три роки він вивчає фізичну хімію. 7. Нещодавно студенти відвідали сучасну лабораторію. 8. У минулому році ми відвідали декілька сучасних заводів. 9. Коли я зайшов до лабораторії, він вже годину проводив дослідження. 10. Вчора я закінчив доповідь про розвиток хімії полімерів в Україні.

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