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EXERCISES

VOCABULARY

PERIODIC LAW

One of the cornerstones of modern chemical theory is the Periodic Law. It can be simply stated as follows: The properties of the elements are a periodic function of the nuclear charges of their atoms.

In 1869 Mendeleyev arrived at the conclusion that by the arrangement of the elements in order of increasing atomic weight the similarity and periodicity of properties of various, valence groups of the elements were clearly delineated.

There were several vacant spaces in Mendeleev’s table which led him to predict the existence of six undiscovered elements, (scandium, gallium, germanium, polonium etc). His confidence in the new classification was clearly expressed in the predictions which he made of the chemical properties of these missing elements. And within fifteen years gallium, scandium and germanium were discovered.

Although this table has been modified hundreds of times, it has withstood the onslaught of all new facts. Isotopes, rare gases, atomic numbers, and electron configurations have only strengthened the idea of the periodicity of the properties of the elements.

Periodic Law –періодичний закон cornerstone –наріжний камінь to state –формулювати as follows –наступним чином nuclear charge –ядерний заряд to arrive at a conclusion –прийти до висновку arrangement –розташування in order of increasing atomic weight –в порядку зростання атомної ваги similarity - схожість valence group –валентна група to delineate -окреслювати vacant space –вільне місце to predict -передбачати   existence -існування confidence -впевненість to express –виражати prediction -пророкування missing -відсутній within –протягом to modify -видозмінювати to withstand –витримувати onslaught –поява isotope –ізотоп rare gases –рідкі гази electron configuration –елœектронна конфігурація to strengthen -зміцнювати

1. How many chemical elements are there now?

2. What is the symbol of Manganese?

3. What is a symbol usually derived from?

4. What does a subscript show?

5. What element is always designated first in the formula?

6.When did Mendeleyev discover the periodic law?

7. How can the Periodic Law be simply stated?

8. What elements were discovered after Mendeleyev modified the table?

9. Give some examples of polyatomic molecules of single elements.

10. What are simple diatomic molecules of a single element designated by?

2. True or false?

1) Symbols and formulas are used to indicate chemical reactions.

2) Groups of symbols are called equations.

3) Groups of symbols are called formulas.

4) There are 102 chemical elements now.

5) The more electropositive element is always designated last in the formula.

6) Subscriptions are used to designate the number of atoms of each element present in the molecule.

7) Mendeleyev made his discovery in 1879.

8) There were several vacant spaces in Mendeleev’s table which led him to predict the existence of six undiscovered elements.

9) The table wasn’t modified.

10)Properties of the elements are periodic functions of the nuclear charges of their atoms.


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