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Химия CHLORINE
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Answer the questions

EXERCISES

1. What are metals defined as?

2. What do we name as non- metals?

3. What elements are classified as amphoteric?

4. What physical properties do metals and non-metals usually differ in?

5. What element is generally included in both groups?

2. Find Ukrainian equivalents:

1. under certain conditions а. позичати елœектрони

2. until recently b. хімічна протилежність

3. chemical opposite c. за певних умов

4. to borrow electrons d. до недавніх пір

3. Find English equivalents:

1. поганий провідник a. characteristic luster

2. твердий стан b. non-ductile metals

3. відповідний блиск c. solid state

4. негнучкі метали d. poor conductor

4. Translate the following sentences:

1. The reaction with lead is very slow, as might be expected with the metal. 2. The atomic weight of an element is defined as the mass of one atom of an element compared with the mass of one atom of hydrogen. 3. As to the advantages of this method they leave no doubt. 4. He was surprised as if he had never seen such a device. 5. Energy is defined as the ability to do work. 6. As soon as he saw bubbles on the surface of the liquid he stopped the experiment. 7. Carbon as well as metals conducts electricity. 8. If the experiment is successful, the results will be accurate. 9. Provided the temperature was high, the metal would melt. 10. Unless metals had been good conductors, they wouldn't have been used in many branches of industry. 11. If non-metals hadn't borrowed electrons, they would not have combined with metals and formed salts. 12. Provided the experiment was successful, they would publish the results in a scientific journal.

Chlorine is an element with atomic number 17, atomic weight 35.5 (thirty-five point five). It is a gas at ordinary temperatures and is never found free in nature. It is found in nature combined with other elements. At normal temperatures, chlorine is a diatomic gas (C12), greenish-yellow in colour and about 2 1/2 (two and a half) times as heavy as air. It liquefies at atmospheric pressure at - 34.1° C (minus thirty-four point one degrees Centigrade) to a yellowish liquid approx­imately 11/2 (one and a half) times as heavy as water. The liquid freezes at - 100.98° C (minus one hundred point nine eight degrees Centigrade). Chlorine is soluble in water and indirectly exerts bleaching and bactericidal action by reacting with water to form hypochlorous acid.

Cl2 + H2O ↔ HCl + HClO → HCl + (O)

Chlorine Water Hydrochloric Hypochloric

acid acid

The hypochlorous acid is unstable, giving up oxygen to form more HC1. The oxygen attacks and destroys bacteria; it also oxidizes coloured organic substances, forming colourless or less-coloured components.

As one of the most active elements, chlorine ranks in reactivity about with oxygen. It combines directly and readily with hydrogen and most non-metals except nitrogen, carbon and oxygen; it also unites with all the familiar metals except gold and platinum.

Participating in a number of important organic reactions, in some cases chlorine appears in the final product, as in insecticides (DDT) or in the plastic, polyvinil chloride.

Chlorine is generally produced by electrolysis of water solutions of sodium chloride in electrolytic cells. When sodium chloride or potassium chloride solutions are subjected to electrolysis, there are three products; caustic soda or caustic potash, chlorine and hydrogen. If fused sodium chloride is used, there are two products: chlorine, and metallic sodium.


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