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Химия RADIOACTIVITY
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EXERCISES

VOCABULARY

еnvironment – навколишнє середовище worry - хвилюватися pollution - забруднення point out - вказувати branch - галузь deal – мати справу relation - відношення point of view – точка зору mankind - людство lessen - зменшувати create - створювати multiply - примножувати considerable - значний closed cycle use – закритий цикл використання purify - очищувати instead - замість

1. Match the words:

1) to protect 2) to take care of nature 3) to like nature 4) to feed animals and birds 5) rare plants (animals) 6) the Red book 7) ecology 8) to lessen pollution 9) to create nature parks 10)to reuse the same water а) любити природу в) Червона книга с) зменшувати забруднення d) створювати заповідники к) захищати e) екологія f) годувати тварин і птахів g) повторно використовувати воду h) піклуватися про природу i) рідкісні рослини (тварини)

2. Translate the sentences into English:

1.Сьогодні проблеми навколишнього середовища найбільш важливі для сучасного суспільства.

2.Забруднення води, грунту та радіоактивне забруднення шкодять природі.

3.Учені вважають, що людська діяльність змінює клімат нашої планети та руйнує його.

4.Тільки зараз ми зрозуміли, що наша планета знаходиться під загрозою і це - наша провина.

5.Ми можемо створювати заповідники для зникаючих видів тварин та рослин.

3. Put 4 types of the questions to the sentences:

1. After the Chernobyl tragedy thousands of people greatly suffered from radiation.

2. Lake Baikal is the deepest freshwater lake on the Earth.

3. Modern plants and factories send a lot of smoke into air.

It is very difficult for many Ukrainians to believe that their large and rich country with its rich and generous nature: great forest, thousands of lakes, rivers and streams, vast steppes and fields, beautiful gardens and parks could have the problem with the environment. Environmental pollution is great today. The intensive development of industry results in air pollution. We are the part of our nature and we must understand it. Many kinds of birds, animal, fish and plants disappeared forever. But many kinds of rare animals are registered in the “Red Book”. In this book there are such plants and animals which are protected by the state, because people can destroy them in a very short period of time. There are many National Parks in Ukraine. They are located in different parts of the country. Nature has its rights and it is the duty of a man to respect and defend these rights.

The discovery of natural radioactivity by the French researcher Henri Becquerel ushered in a new era in science and technology. This phenomenon is based on the principle that substances occurring in nature, such as uranium and radium, are transformed into other chemical elements, independently of influences from outside, emitting different kinds of radiations which blacken a photographic plate as this is done by the rays of light.

The basic practical and theoretical work done by the Curies, the work by E. Rutherford who achieved an artificial nuclear transformation, the development of apparatus for the detection of radioactive nuclides be Geiger and Muller, the discovery of neutron by the English physicist J. Chadwick, the discovery of the artificial radioactivity by the Curies and the discoveries of some other scientists are the milestones in the history of the radioactivity.

The field of application of radioactive nuclides in chemistry, physics, biology, agriculture, medicine and industry has rapidly expanded.

One of the most interesting fields of applications of radioactivity is the determination of the age of carbonaceous materials that is materials containing carbon, by measurement of their radioactivity due to carbon 14. This technique of radiocarbon dating permits the dating of samples containing carbon with an accuracy of around 200 years. At the present time the method involved can be applied to materials that are about 25,000 years old.

Today the range of applications of radioactive nuclides comprises all branches of research work. Thus, for example, certain medical examinations call for short lived radioactive nuclides in order that the human organism should not be exposed too long a period of time to radiation, whereas a radioactive nuclide which excites the luminescent material should have a long half-life.

Investigations into the reaction mechanism in chemistry, researches in the field of physics, the explanation of vital processes in plants, animals and man, diagnostics of diseases of the human body, the testing of metallic and ceramic materials are but a few fields of science and technology which today after the discovery of radioactivity, cannot dispense with radioactive nuclides and the radiation emitted by them.


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