Химия EXERCISES просмотров - 251
CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER STATION
On April 26, 1986 one of the history’s worst nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power station in Ukraine. At 1:23 AM, technicians at the plant allowed the power in the 4th reactor to fall to low levels as part of a controlled experiment, which went terribly wrong. The reactor overheated and caused a meltdown of the core. This resulted in an explosive force of steam, which blew off the lid of the reactor. Large amounts of the radioactive materials were released into the atmosphere. The reactor-4 explosions released more radioactivities that the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. Most of the discharged material was deposited close by as dust and debris, but wind carries the lighter radioactive material over the Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and parts of Europe.
The operator’s over-confident decision-making, a flaw in the design of the reactor and inadequate safety systems are believed to be the major factors that caused the Chernobyl disaster. Many people were affected by this catastrophe. The accident caused 31 immediate deaths that were mainly the result of exposure the radiation. The main casualties were among those who fought the fires caused by the explosion. Once the fires were extinguished, a liquidating crew of around 200,000 people was initially employed to clean up the site. Later the number swelled to 600,000. This crew was exposed to high doses of radiation, which might affect their health in the long run.
Many children in the surrounding areas are developed thyroid cancer due to the radiation emitted. Many Ukrainians, Russians and Belarusians were evacuated and later given new homes in a different area.
Today reactor-4 is buried in cement tomb which was quickly built in order to allow the other reactors at the power station to continue working. However, this shelter is not strong and will not last and there are plants to replace it. Many people have suffered in some way as a result of the Chernobyl disaster and millions of dollars are still being spent today to contain reactor-4 and assure that no further radiation leakage occurs.
|core– ядро, серцевина casualty - жертва lid - покриття crew - команда to release, deposit - випускати to clean up - прибирати||to leak - витік dust and debris – пил, уламки to enclose - огороджувати lack - недолік flaw - тріщина|
1. The Chernobyl disaster is thought to be …
a) as serious as Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings;
b) a minor accident with no future consequences;
c) one of many similar accidents;
d) Europe’s greatest catastrophe.
2. When the Chernobyl-4 reactor overheated …
a) technicians turned it down;
b) it melted the core;
c) the power plants was filled with steam;
d) it sealed the lid of the reactor shut.
3. One of the causes of the accident was …
a) the raising of the power in 4th reactor to high levels;
b) a design faults;
c) the installation of proper safety back-up systems;
d) the technicians lack of confidence.
4. The 4th reactor explosion resulted in the …
a) spread of the heavier radioactive material by the wind;
b) immediate death of 200,000 people;
c) release of dust and debris into the atmosphere;
d) release of the 4th reactor’s cover.
5. Most of the people who died as a result of the explosion were…
b) members of clean- up crew;
c) operators of the reactor;
6. The members of clean-up crew…
a) developed thyroid cancer;
b) put out the fires;
c) were subject to high levels of radiation;
d) were unharmed by the radiation.
a) is steel leaking radiation;
b) is enclosed in cement;
c) will be replaced in future;
d) cost millions of dollars.
1. Complete the sentences with the verb in the correct form: Present Simple, Future Simple Tenses. Watch tadpoles grow 16) If you look in a pond, you ..... (see) in a shallow water great lumps of jelly. That ..... (be) frog's spawn. Mother frog ..... (lay) up to 800 eggs. Don't think she ..... ( take) care of them. She ...... ( leave) them, floating on the surface to look after themselves as soon as the eggs are laid. Then in a few days if you look at an egg you ..... ( notice) a black spot,... [читать подробенее]
1. Put in a\an or the where necessary. ..…Britain, in which ... fifty million people live and work, is,.. land of... great variety. There are many large cities, but they are surrounded with ... quiet countryside. There are ... plains in ... east, hills in... center and south-west, and ... mountains in ... north. Some parts of ... country are almost without ... trees while others have ... great forests, ... south is ... land of... rivers, but Scotland is... land of ... lakes. One of ...... [читать подробенее]
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Exercise 296. Choose the appropriate variant. 1. … get up after the operation yet? a) Is he allowed to b) Can he c) Might he 2. The trip by train lasted for a week! They … exhausted by now! a) had better b) can c) must 3. Percy … watered my cyclamen, look, it’s dying. a) didn’t have to b) needn’t have c) might have 4. You … be at the airport 2 hours ahead of time, otherwise you will have problems with registration. a) are to b) have to c) must 5. I … hear... [читать подробенее]
Exercises to the lead-in section and the text (Upstream Intermediate, pp.6 – 7) I. Use the dictionary and see the pictures on the next page to find out the differences between the following types of buildings. Get ready to explain them to the class: 1. a bungalow 2. a terraced house BrE / row house AmE 3. a semi-detached house BrE / duplex AmE 4. a detached house 5. a block of flats BrE / an apartment building AmE 6. a cottage 7. a ranch house II. Learn the pronunciation... [читать подробенее]
work n работа, труд manual (intellectual) work физический (умственный) труд to erase distinctions between manual and intellectual work стереть различия между физическим и умственным трудом Z zone n зона; пояс a time zone часовой пояс a climatic zone климатический пояс the Non-Black Earth Zone Нечерноземная... [читать подробенее]
C capacity n мощность annual capacity to have a capacity (with a capacity) of 2,000,000 kilowatts годовая производительность иметь мощность (мощностью) в 2 000 000 киловатт. (public) catering n общественное питание a catering institution/establishment предприятие общественного питания census n перепись населения to take... [читать подробенее]
She was sent to the neighbouring republic of Uzbekistan to continue her education. There, in Tashkent, under a decree signed by Lenin, the first state university in Central Asia had been opened in 1920. Tajibayeva joined its geological department. She was in Tashkent when the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 broke out. She attended lectures in the morning and nursed the wounded in the hospitals at night. In 1943 Patchaim Tajibayeva graduated from the University with honours. She was thinking... [читать подробенее]
UNIT FIFTEEN THE SOVIET UNION TODAY Topics and Texts for Discussion* V. I. Lenin, the founder of the first socialist state. The Great October Socialist Revolution, a turning point in the history of mankind. The USSR, a voluntary union of free nations. The new Constitution of the USSR. Fundamental human rights guaranteed to Soviet citizens. The Soviet socialist way of life. Large-scale construction in the USSR. Contribution of Komsomol members to the economic development of the country. The... [читать подробенее]
Text 1. From the history of Belarus Additional texts for reading Exercises 1. Replace the following definitions by one word from text 3: – land along each side of a river or canal; – things, circumstances, surroundings, that make life easy or pleasant; – a part of a town or a country marked out for a special purpose; – to be shut in on all sides; – buildings and equipment of an institution, factory; – buildings where goods are made (esp. by... [читать подробенее]