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Химия FIELDS OF CHEMISTRY
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VOCABULARY

chemistry -хімія science -наука to include -включати property –властивість, якість composition -склад codas structure -структура, стан to undergo –піддаватися accompanying -супутні energy changes –перетворення енергії abundance– безліч overall volume of production –загальний обсяг продукції much credit for this is due to our scientists –в цьому велика заслуга наших вчених research –дослідження to win world-wide recognition –отримати всœесвітнє визнання to serve –служити theoretical basis –теоретична основа development –розвиток enable –надавати можливість to set up -засновувати branch -галузь close links –тісний зв'язок large-scale production –виробництво у великих масштабах synthesizing - синтез compound –поєднання to evolve -розробляти simultaneously -одночасно manufacture -виробництво textile fibres -текстильні волокна contribution –внесок aniline dyes –анілінові барвники to reveal –відкривати, показувати condition -умова processing -обробка chain reaction –ланцюгова реакція discovery -відкриття to achieve -досягати to play an important part –відігравати важливу роль

The field of chemistry is now a very large one. There are more than 30 different branches of chemistry. Some of the better known fields are inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, biological chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, nuclear chemistry, industrial chemistry, colloidal chemistry, andelectrochemistry.

Inorganic chemistry. It is originally considered that the field of inorganic chemistry consists of the study of materials not derived from living organisms|. However it now includes all substances other than the hydrocarbons and their derivatives.

Organic chemistry. At one time it was thought that all substances found in plants and animals could be made only by using part of a living plant or animal. The study of these substances, most of which contain carbon was therefore called organic chemistry. It is now known that this idea is quite wrong, for in 1828 F. Wohler made an "organic" substance using a simple laboratory process.

Organic chemistry now merely means the chemistry of carbon compounds.

Physical chemistry is concerned with those parts of chemistry which are closely linked with physics as, for instance, the behaviour of substances when a current of electricity is passed through them.

Electrochemistry is concerned with the relation between electrical energy and chemical change. Electrolysis is the process whereby electrical energy causes a chemical change in the conducting medium, which usually is a solution or a molten substance. The process is generally used as a method of deposition metals from a solution.

Magnetochemistry is the study of behaviour of a chemical substance in the presence of a magnetic field. A paramagnetic substance, i.e. one having unpaired electrons is drawn into a magnetic field. Diamagnetic substances, i.e. those having no unpaired electrons, are repelled by a magnetic field.

Biochemistry. Just as the physical chemist works on the boundaries between physics and chemistry, so the biochemist works on the boundaries between biology and chemistry. Much of the work of the biochemist is concerned with foodstuffs and, medicines. The medicines known as antibiotics, of which penicillin is an early example, were prepared by biochemists.


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