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Химия Grammar Study
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Text C

ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL

Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh in 1847. His father was a world-famous teacher of speech and the inventor of a system which he called "Visible Speech". It helped deaf persons to pronounce words they could not hear. Alexander chose the same profession, and as his father became a teacher of the deaf, he moved to the United States and began to teach deaf children to speak. At the same time he worked at improving his father's invention.

In 1866, the nineteen-year-old Bell started thinking about sending tones by telegraph. It was then that there came to his mind the idea of the "harmonic telegraph", which would send musical tones electrically from one place to another. Bell was not a scientist. So he had to give all his energy and time to one thing only – knowledge of electricity. There was little time for rest and little time to eat. Hour after hour, day and night he and his friend Watson worked at testing and experimenting with the telephone. Sometimes it worked and sometimes it did not. "We have to do something to make our telephone work better," Bell used to say again and again.

At last they decided to try a new kind of transmitter. The new transmitter was set in Bell's bedroom. Watson was sitting in the laboratory. He put his ear to the receiver and was waiting. Suddenly he heard Bell's voice. And not the voice only but the words too.

"Mr. Watson, come here. I want you."

It was on the 10th of March, 1876. Alexander Graham Bell had invented the telephone.

In a few years there were telephones all over the world. In 1915, the first transcontinental telephone line was opened. Graham Bell, a very old man now, sat in New York at a desk with a telephone before him, while his friend Watson was listening more than three hundred thousand miles away in San Francisco. People were interested what speech Bell had prepared for that great day, on which the telephone invented by him was to carry sound from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific.

Bell was sitting in a big hall; there were many people in it. Everyone expected to hear a serious, scientific speech. Suddenly everybody heard his clear voice as he spoke into his old transmitter, "Mr. Watson, come here. I want you." He repeated the words which he had said almost forty years ago. Much to the amusement of the people Watson answered, "I would be glad to come, but it would take me a week."

II. Translate from Russian into English.

1. Александр Белл мечтал стать музыкантом или учителœем, а не изобретателœем телœефона.

2. В возрасте 25 лет Александр стал проводить опыты по передаче человеческого голоса на длинные расстояния.

3. Первая телœефонная линия была построена в Германии в 1877 ᴦ.

4. Сегодня проектные бюро по всœему миру разрабатывают «видеофоны».

5. Видеокамера автоматически приспосабливается к различным условиям освещения.

Согласование времён (Sequence of Tenses)

Сдвиг времен в придаточном дополнительном при главном предложении в прошедшем времени
Present Indefinite → Past Indefinite Present Continuous → Past Continuous Действие придаточного предложения происходит одновременно с действием главного.
Present Perfect Past Past Indefinite Perfect Действие придаточного предложения предшествует действию главного.
Future → Future-in-the Past Действие придаточного предложения совершается позже действия главного.
Употребляя простые предложения в роли придаточных дополнительных при главном предложении в прошедшем времени, сдвигайте времена, как указано в таблице:
Sequence of Tenses
He lives in New York. I thought that he lived in New York Одновременное действие
Mother is sleeping. I knew that mother was sleeping. Одновременное действие
He has returned from London. I was told that he had returned from London. Предшествующее действие
He bought a new car. I heard that he had bought a new car. Предшествующее действие
He will send us a letter. I supposed that he would send us a letter. Последующее действие

Прямая и косвенная речь (Direct and Indirect Speech)

Косвенная речь  
При переводе предложений в косвенную речь не забывайте заменять обстоятельства времени, как указано в таблице.  
Direct speech Indirect speech
Today yesterday tomorrow … ago this … here last year last month last … next … that day the day before the next day … before that … there the year before the month before the … before the following …
Indirect commands  
He told me: “Keep quiet! Don’t make noise!” He asked me to keep quiet and not to make noise.
  Indirect statements  
He said   He told me that “I am an engineer. I work at a plant. In the evening I study English.” he was an engineer and worked at a plant. He added that he studied English in the evening.
He said He told me that “I saw my friend yesterday.” he had seen his friend the day before.
He said   He told me that “We lived in Rome two years ago. My father workedthere. they had lived in Rome two years before and explained that his father had worked there.
He said He told me that “I shall tell you about it tomorrow.” he would tell me about it the next day.
Indirect questions
Special questions He asked (me) He wanted to know He wondered
“Where do you live?” “Where does he work?” “What is Nick doing?” “What have you prepared for today?” “When did you come home yesterday?” “When will your mother come home?” where I lived. where he worked. what Nick was doing. what I had prepared for that day.   when I had come home the day before.   when my mother would come home.
General question He asked (me) He wanted to know He wondered
“Do you play chess?” “Does she go to school?” “Are you listening to me?” “Have you done your homework?” “Did you skate last winter?” “Will you see your friend tomorrow?”     if whether I played chess. she went to school. I was listening to him. I had done my homework before. I had skated the winter before. I should see my friend the next day.

I. Translate into Russian.

1. I knew that you were ill. 2. I knew that you had been ill. 3. We found that she left home at eight o’clock every morning. 4. We found that she had left home at eight o’clock that morning. 5. When he learnt that his son always received excellent marks in all the subjects at school, he was very pleased. 6. When he learnt that his son had received an excellent mark at school, he was very pleased. 7. We did not know where our friends went every evening. 8. We did not know where our friends had gone. 9. She said that her best friend was a doctor. 10. She said that her best friend had been a doctor. 11. I didn’t know that you worked at the Hermitage. 12. I didn’t know that you had worked at the Hermitage.

II. Convert the following sentences info the past tense.

1. My uncle says he has just come back from the Caucasus. 2. He says he has spent a fortnight in the Caucasus. 3. He says it did him a lot of good. 4. He says he feels better now. 5. He says his wife and he spent most of their time on the beach. 6. He says they did a lot of sightseeing. 7. He says he has a good camera. 8. He says he took many photographs while traveling in the Caucasus. 9. He says he will come to see us next Sunday. 10. He says he will bring and show us the photographs he took during his stay in the Caucasus.

III. Convert the following sentences info the indirect speech.

1. “My friend lives in Moscow”, said Alec. 2. “You have not done your work well”, said the teacher to me. 3. The poor man said to the rich man: “My horse is wild. It can kill your horse.” 4. The rich man said to the judge: “This man’s horse has killed my horse.” 5. “ This man spoke to me on the road,” said the woman. 6. “I can’t explain this rule to you,” said my classmate to me. 7. The teacher said to the class: “We shall discuss this subject tomorrow.” 8. The woman said to her son: “I am glad I am here.” 9. Mike said: “We have bought these books today.” 10. She said to me: “Now I can read your translation.” 11. Our teacher said: “Thackeray’s novels are very interesting.” 12. She said: “You will read this book in a year.” 13. Nellie said: “I read “Jane Eyre” last year.”

IV. Convert the following special questions into the indirect speech.

1. I said to Nick: “Where are you going?” 2. I said to him: “How long will it take you to get there?” 3. Pete said to his friends: “When are you leaving St. Petersburg?” 4. He said: “Who will you see before you leave here?” 5. They said to him: “What time does the train start?” 6. Ann said to Mike: “ When did you leave London?” 7. She said to Boris: “ When will you be back home?”

8. Boris said to them: “How can I get to the railway station?” 9. Mary asked Tom: “What time will you come here tomorrow?” 10. She asked me: “Why didn’t you come here yesterday?” 11. She asked me: “What will you do tomorrow if you are not busy at your office?” 12. I asked Mike: “What will you do after dinner?” 13. I asked my uncle: “How long did you stay in the Crimea?” 14. Ada said to me: “Where did you see such trees?” 15. I said to Becky: “What kind of book has your friend brought you?” 16. Mother said to me: “Who has brought this parcel?” 17. He said to her: “Where do you usually spend your summer holidays?”

V. Convert the following general questions into the indirect speech.

1.I said to Boris: “ Does your friend live in London?” 2. I said to the man: “Are you living in a hotel?” 3. Nick said to his friend: “Will you stay at the “Hilton”?” 4. He said to me: “Do you often go to see your friends?” 5. He said to me: “Will you see your friends before you leave St. Petersburg?” 6. Mike said to Jane: “ Will you come to the railway station to see me off?” 7. She said to me: “ Have you sent them a telegram?” 8. She said to me: “Did you send them a telegram yesterday?” 9. I said to Mike: “ Have you packed your suit-case?” 10. I said to Kate: “Did anybody meet you at the station?” 11. I said to her: “Can you give me their address?” 12. I asked Tom: “ Have you had breakfast?” 13. I asked my sister: “ Will you stay at home or go for a walk after dinner?” 14. I said to my mother: “Did anybody come to see me?” 15. I asked my sister: “ Will Nick call for you on the way to school?” 16. She said to the young man: “Can you call a taxi for me?” 17. Mary said to Peter: “Have you shown your photo to Dick?” 18. Oleg said to me: “Will you come here tomorrow?” 19. He said to us: “Did you go to the museum this morning?”

Причастия (The Participles)

В английском языке имеются причастие I и причастие II (Participle I, Participle II). Первое образуется путем добавления к основе суффикса –ing, второе – суффикса –ed и, таким образом, имеет внешне сходную форму с прошедшим временем Past Indefinite, от которого Participle II отличается по функции в предложении. Для образования Participle II нестандартных глаголов берется III форма.

Формы причастий

Participle I Indefinite Active Passive Выражает действие, одновременное с действием глагола-сказуемого.
building being built
Participle II   built Выражает действие, одновременное с действием глагола-сказуемого или предшествующее ему.
Perfect Participle having built having been built Выражает действие, предшествующее действию глагола-сказуемого.

Употребление Participle I Active и Passive

Функции в предложении и способы перевода

В предложении Participle I Active может быть:

1. Определœением.

Переводится причастием действительного залога с суффиксами –ущ, -ющ, -ащ, -ящ, -вш, -ш или определительным придаточным предложением. В функции определœения Participle I может стоять перед определяемым словом или после него.

They were watching the dancingchildren. Οʜᴎ наблюдали за танцующими детьми.

2. Обстоятельством (времени, причины, образа действия).

Переводится деепричастием с суффиксами –а, -я, -ав, -ив или обстоятельственным придаточным предложением.

Being familiar with the problem he didn’t find it interesting. Так как он был знаком с проблемой, он не нашел ее интересной.

Participle I с союзами when (когда) и while (в то время как) переводится:

a) деепричастием (или деепричастным оборотом) при этом союз опускается;

b) придаточным предложением с союзами когда, в то время как;

с) при + существительное.

When combining chemically hydrogen and oxygen form water. Вступая в химическую реакцию, водород и кислород образуют воду. (Когда водород и кислород вступают в химическую реакцию, они образуют воду).
While making his experiment the lab assistant put down all the necessary data. Проводя опыт, лаборант записывал всœе необходимые данные. (В то время как лаборант проводил опыт, он записывал … При проведении опыта … .)

3. Частью сказуемого во временах группы Continuous и Perfect Continuous.

Переводится глаголом в личной форме.

He is playing football now. Сейчас он играет в футбол.

Употребление Participle II

Функции в предложении и способы перевода

В предложении Participle II может быть:

1. Определœением.

Переводится причастием страдательного залога с суффиксами-окончаниями -нный, -емый, -имый, -тый, шийся, -вшийся. В функции определœения Participle II может стоять перед определяемым словом или после него.

The devices produced by our plant are of improved quality. Приборы, выпускаемые нашим заводом, улучшенного качества.
The information obtained is of great importance. Полученная информация – очень важна.

Обратите особое внимание на перевод предложений, в которых за подлежащим следуют два слова с окончанием ~ed. Первое из них обычно является определœением в форме Participle II и при переводе ставится перед определяемым словом, второе является сказуемым в Past Indefinitе.

The problem considered called everybody’s attention. Рассматриваемая проблема привлекла всœеобщее внимание.


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