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География Geography and Maps
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Lesson 3 Geography and Maps

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Make up all possible types of questions to the text 2.10

Inky hands and geography

During a geography lesson the teacher is speaking to his pupils about the points of compass. He tells them that when they are facing the north, the south is behind them, while the east is on their right hand and the west on their left hand. Just then he sees that one of the boys, named Bobby, is not listening. He calls to him: "Bobby, stand up and tell me what's on your left hand?" Bobby stands up and says: "Please, sir, there's some ink on it, and I can't get it off."


interaction – взаимодействие

essential – важный

accurate – точный

entire – целый, весь

latitude – широта

longitude – долгота

error – ошибка

to contain – содержать

to revive – возрождать

voyage – путешествие

discovery – открытие

invention – изобретение

observation – наблюдение

photoengraving – фотогравирование

to employ – применять

encyclopedia – энциклопедия

precipitation – осадки

pressure – давление

technique – метод

to locate – определять

to ascertain – выяснять

to measure – измерять

to interpret – объяснять

a source of information поверхность земли
spatial correlation аэрофотосъемка
to measure distances измерять расстояния
the earth’s surface объяснять символы
to find out smth источник информации
to locate places определять местонахождение
to interpret symbols узнавать что-либо
aerial photography пространственное соотношение
the Middle Ages составление карт
map making средние века

accurate – accurately;

constant – constantly;

to refer – reference;

to invent – invention;

to make – makers –map makers – map maker’s symbols;

geography – geographer;

ability – inability;

The arrangement of things over the earth and the interactions between two or more areas can be presented with clarity and simplicity on maps. Although maps are used in many other studies, in geography they become the one constantly essential tool.

The ancient Greeks were the first to make accurate maps of the entire world as they knew it, using latitude and longitude. All their knowledge, with many errors, was contained in maps by the Egyptian Ptolemy 1 of Alexandria 2. During the Middle Ages map making was neglected. About the time of Columbus, Europeans obtained Arabian copies of Ptolemy's maps. They revived the use of latitude and longitude on maps. Then came the great voyages of discovery, and map makers soon developed new methods to show the entire world. They were troubled, however, by inability to determine longitude accurately. Invention of the telescope made it possible to do this from astronomical observations. In 1682 J.D. Cassini 3 produced the first really accurate map of the world.

In the 19 th century inexpensive maps were made possible by the invention of photoengraving. The 20 th century brought aerial photography to the aid of map makers. Today maps are employed in countless ways. Schools use them constantly, not only in the study of geography, but as aids for understanding plant and animal life, history and current events. Outside of school we encounter maps in almost every newspaper and magazine.

Three kinds of maps are important. They are (1) the reference maps, may be used like an encyclopedia as a source of information. A road map is a good example of a reference map. Drivers refer to such maps to find out how to get from one place to another; (2) the illustrative maps show the distribution of specific phenomena or the spatial correlation of two or more phenomena on the earth's surface. The weather map reproduced in daily newspapers is a good example of an illustrative map. It shows how temperatures, precipitation, winds and pressure are related in space; (3) the analytical maps suggest ideas that can be tested by mathematical and statistical techniques. This type of map is used mostly by professional geographers in their research

To make and to read maps involve several abilities. These are the ability to locate places, to ascertain directions, to measure distances and to interpret the map maker's symbols. Exceptional skill in the use of maps is required in many professions, such as geography, civil engineering, geology, navigation and others.

Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus) - Клавдий Птолемей (ок. 90 - ок. 160), др.-греч. астроном. Написал трактат «География», где дал сводку географических сведений античного мира.

Alexandria - Александрия, столица Египта (305 - 30 д.н.э.)

J.D. Cassini - Джованни Доменико Кассини - (1625 - 1712) французский ученый, астроном и геодезист.