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География North America
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Lesson 12 North America

Make up all possible types of questions to the text 11.9

11.11 Speak on:

1. geography of Africa 4. population;

2. flora, fauna, climate 5. African deserts

3. mineral resources and industry

11.12 Get ready to speak about any African country you like (see Lesson 9, ex. 9.12)

adjacent islands – близлежащие острова

isthmus – перешеек

inverted triangle – перевёрнутый треугольник

ancient rocks – древние породы

to encircle – окружать

prairie –прерия

tributary – приток

mammal – млекопитающие

musk ox – овцебык

caribou – карибу, северный олень

preyed on by … – служить добычей для …

seal – тюлень

moose – американский лось

wolverine – росомаха

songbird – певчая птица

biome – биом (совокупность различных групп организмов и среды обитания в определённой географической зоне)

woodland bison – лесной бизон

marten – куница

wild turkey – дикий индюк

insects – насекомые

coyote – койот

bob cat – рыжая рысь

skunk – полосатый скунс

jack rabbit – заяц

Northern Hemisphere, Isthmus of Panama, Columbia, equator, Bering Strait, Greenland, Arctic Canadian Archipelago, Newfoundland, Antilles and Bahama Islands, Aleutian, Queen Charlotte, Vancouver, Alexander Arch (Archipelago), Canadian Shield, Interior Lowlands, Precambrian, Cordilleran system, Alaska, Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, Mississippi, Great Lakes, Canada, the USA, Saint Lawrence River, Great Salt Lake, Florida, Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey.

North America is the third largest continent, the total area of the continent with the adjacent islands is 24,250 thousand sq. km. The population for the entire continent is estimated to be 424,523,000. North America lies in the Northern Hemisphere relative to the equator. Except where the relatively narrow Isthmus of Panama extends southeastward to connect with Colombia in South America, the continent shaped like an inverted triangle, is completely surrounded by water. It is bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by the Pacific Ocean, and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. The narrow Bering Strait separates North America from Russia. There are big islands off the coasts of North America. In the north lies the world’s largest islands, Greenland (2,200 thousands sq. km.) as well as Arctic Canadian Archipelago. To the east of North America is Newfoundland, to the north-east are the Antilles and Bahama Islands. In the north-west and west lie such islands as Aleutian, Queen Charlotte, Vancouver and Alexander Arch (Archipelago).

In the north-central part, mainly in Canada, lies the Canadian Shield made up of ancient rocks. Nearly encircling the Shield and Interior Lowlands are various mountain systems, formed at different times since the Precambrian. On the south-east is the Appalachian system. On the west are the Cordilleran system, extending from Alaska to the Isthums, and the Rocky Mountains. Between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains are the central lowlands, which are called the prairie, and the eastern lowlands, called the Mississippi valley. The Mississippi River with its far-reaching tributaries is one of the major river systems of the world. The five Great Lakes, between the USA and Canada, are joined together by short rivers or canals, and the Saint Lawrence River joins them to the Atlantic Ocean. In the west there is another lake called the Great Salt Lake.

Looking at the East Coast of the continent, we see that the southern tip of Florida has a tropical savanna climate. This gives way almost immediately to the humid subtropical climate of the southern states. Then the humid subtropical climate changes to humid continental, hot summer climate. Further north, there is humid continental climate with mild summers. Moving still further north, we see that most of Canada has a subarctic climate until we reach a latitude of 55 0 to 60 0N, or 65 0 to 70 0N in the western part of the country. Poleward to these latitudes the climate is described as polar tundra.

The wild life of tundra includes such large mammals as musk oxen and caribou, preyed on by wolves, and sea mammals such as seals and walruses, preyed on by polar bear. Directly to the south of the tundra is the coniferous forest, which is inhabited primarily by moose, black bears, wolves, lynxes and wolverines, as well as numerous kinds of songbirds. South of the coniferous forest lies the great deciduous forest biome. The wild life of these forests include woodland bisons, deer, mountain lions, martens, wild turkeys. The grassland covers the heart of the continent. In spite of the severe conditions of the North American deserts, insects population is large. Coyotes, foxes, bob-cats, skunks, wild mice, jack rabbits dwell this region.

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