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География Subdivisions of regional geography
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Subdivisions of topical geography

Geography - A Study of the Earth and What It Holds

Read and translate the text

Read and translate these words and word combinations

to distribute – distribution;

to investigate – investigation;

to associate – association;

to subdivide – subdivision;

similar – similarity – similarities;

agriculture – agricultural – agricultural characteristics;

separate – separately;

The distribution of things on the face of the earth can be investigated and analysed in either of two ways. One approach is called topical geography, or sometimes systematic geography. This approach involves the investigation and analysis of such phenomenon as the earth's landforms, its climate, its political divisions, or its agricultural characteristics.

The other approach is called regional geography. It focuses attention upon a particular area or region. Within the region it investigates the distribution and association of elements which give the region its distinctive character.

Topical geography may by focused on physical or human phenomena. Analysis of the distribution of landforms, climates, water, soils, minerals, and similar factors is called physical geography. The principal branches of physical geography are geomorphology, climatology, biogeography, oceanology and soil geography. Certain aspects of physical geography, in turn, are sometimes studied separately. These include the plant geography, animal geography, geography of minerals and other aspects. The speciality which treat the form, size, and movements of the earth is called mathematical geography. Human geography analyses the distribution of human phenomenon. Economic geography includes such specialities as the geography of manufacturing, transportation geography, commercial geography. Political geography emphasizes the pattern of the earth's political sovereignties. A specialized field of topical geography known as urban geography, is devoted to analysing of the distribution of cities and things within them. Cartography takes a special place among geographic studies.

In regional geography analysis is concentrated on associations which give the character to a particular area. The area may be continental in size, or it may by subdivided into units such as countries, states and counties. Subdivisions of the world that are made on the basis of similarities of human life provide culture regions. Subdivisions on the basis of similarities of natural conditions provide physical regions. Thus, there are a geography of North America, a geography of United States, a geography of California, and a geography of Boston.

2.5 Say whether the following statements are true or false. Use the following: that's right; nothing of the kind; I don't agree; I think that's exactly so; that's true; that's not right.

1. Topical geography may be focused on physical or human phenomena.

2. One of the geographic branches is climatology.

3. The speciality which treat the form, size and movements of the earth is called urban geography.

4. Political geography emphasizes the pattern of the earth's political sovereignties.

5. Subdivisions on the basis of similarities of natural conditions provide culture regions.