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География Text for written translation
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Answer the following questions.

Read this text and render it into English

Complete the following sentences

Say whether the following statements are true or false

1. Madagascar is the largest of islands associated with Africa.

2. Sub-Saharan Africa includes central lands of the continent and its northern part.

3. Plateaus and hilly uplands make up Africa’s interior.

4. The plateaus were long ago cracked by a shift and it caused a huge fault.

5. Together the trenches form the Great Barrier Reef.

6. Half of the continent’s land is drained by the Nile and the Conge river basins.

7. There is no arable land in Africa.

8. Economists classify all the countries of Africa as developing nations.

1. Africa occupies ………. .

2. The continent is bounded on the south by ………. .

3. Mountain ………. and Mountain ………. were formed when ………. .

4. The series of trenches extend all the way from ………. .

5. Temperatures are modified by ………. .

6. Kenya, Uganda, South Africa and some other countries have ………. .

К северу и югу от Саванн в Африке располагаются зоны тропических пустынь и полупустынь. В Северной Африке - ϶ᴛᴏ грандиозная Сахара (площадь 8,7 млн. км2). В Южной Африке – пустыни и полупустыни впадины Калахари, пустыня Намиб на побережье Атлантического океана. В пустынях Африки экстремальные климатические условия. Годовая сумма осадков не превышает 100 – 200 мм; иногда годами не бывает дождей. Характерны крайняя сухость воздуха; очень высокие дневные и сравнительно низкие ночные температуры, пыльные и песчаные бури. Растительность африканских пустынь представлена в основном ксерофитами. Животный мир пустынь и полупустынь приспособился к жизни в аридных условиях. В поисках скудной жизни и воды они могут преодолевать большие расстояния (к примеру, мелкие антилопы) или подолгу обходиться без воды (пресмыкающиеся, верблюды). Основная хозяйственная деятельность в пустынях сосредоточена в оазисах. Отдельные народы и племена (берберы в северной Африке, бушмены и готтентоты в Калахари) ведут кочевую жизнь, занимаясь скотоводством, собирательством и охотой.

Where is Africa situated?

What oceans and seas wash the coasts of Africa?

Where is the boundary between North Africa and the rest of the continent lie?

How were the trenches formed?

What are the largest rivers and lakes of Africa?

What factors affect the climate of the continent?

What mineral resources are found in Africa?

Africa’s overall population density is low by world’s standards, because much of its vast desert area is uninhabitable; the population per unit of arable land, however, its near the world average. Wide variations in density occur from country to country and within countries. Africa’s effort to achieve sustained economic growth have been plagued by the region’s very high fertility level. The continent is a developing region with all the associated demographic and social problems. It is estimated that the continent’s annual rate of population growth is about 3 per cent, the highest of any continent and several times higher than Africa’s real economic growth. Birth and death rates, the major factor in population growth, vary widely from region to region. Southern Africa, for example, has the lowest crude birth rate and the lowest rate of growth and western Africa has the highest birth rate.

The peoples inhabiting Africa probably speak more separate and distinct languages (800 to 1,000) than those of any other continent. The most homogeneous region, in terms of language, is North Africa, where Arabic is predominant. The languages spoken by the Sub-Saharan peoples are known collectively as Bantu. The forest-dwelling Pygmies, inhabiting various parts of central Africa, form a distinctive ethnic and cultural group but have no distinctive language of their own. In southernmost parts of the continent, people of European descent are found. Dutch migrations began in the 17 th century. The English first settled in what is now Zambia, Zimbabwe, and the East African Highlands in the 19 th century. The Portuguese settled in Angola and Mozambique, while Germans settled in what is now Namibia.

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