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География The climate of the British Isles
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Weather and Сlimate

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Find Russian equivalents to the following word combinations

prevailing winds западные берега
temperate belt виды растений
grain crops умеренное влияние
moderating influence теплое течение
species of plants преобладающие ветры
strong frosts зерновые культуры
abundance of rainfall умеренный пояс
lack of sunshine сильные морозы
western shores недостаток солнечного света
warm current избыток дождей

Climatology is concerned with the prevailing state of the atmosphere, including average climatic values, the frequency of values within stated ranges, weather types and their characteristics, and the explanation and distribution of both climatic elements and general climatic types. Of particular geographic interest are the interrelationships of climatic elements and types with other physical and biologic features and with human activity.

The conditions of the atmosphere which determine an area's weather or climate are temperature, precipitation (rain and snow), atmospheric pressure, winds, humidity and percentage of cloudiness and sunshine. The average of these conditions over a period of many years make up an area's climate. Tropical climate reigns over 36.2 per cent of the earth’s surface, moderate – over 37.2 per cent, cold – over 18.8 per cent, dry – over 10.5 per cent, snow-bound climate – 7.3 per cent.

Because the combination of climatic conditions differs from place to place, geography is concerned with the classification of areas according to climate. Forestsare commonly found where the climate is humid and not too cold for trees to grow. Grasslandsgenerally develop in subhumid or semiarid regions where the rainfall is less than that necessary for trees. Desertsoccur in places where there is so little rainfall that even grass has difficulty for growing. Tundrasare found where the climate is cool to cold throughout the year.

The British Isles which are surrounded by the ocean have an insular climate. The climate is moister and more equable than of Central Europe. The three things that chiefly determine the climate of Britain are: 1) the position of the island in the temperate belt; 2) the fact that the prevailing winds blow from the west and southwest; 3) the warm current – the Gulf Stream that flows from the Gulf of Mexico along the western shores of England.

The British Isles are situated in the parallels on which Moscow and Kiev are situated. The climate is mild and strong frosts are rare. Due to the moderating influences of the sea and the Gulf Stream, the January temperature is higher and the July temperature lower than in any other country of the same latitude.

Its hard to say that Britain has typical weather because of the sudden changes that occur: showers from what was only a few hours before the clear sky; sunshine that makes you want to leave off most of your clothes followed by winds that set your wishing for two other coats. There is an abundance of rainfall in the west. As a result, there are thick fogs, which last for days and weeks at a time during the autumn and winter. The lack of sunshine hinders the cultivation of many species of plants, especially grain crops. However, grasses grow all the year round, providing fodder for cattle.