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География The Earth
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Lesson 7 The Earth

Answer the following questions

Using the given chart , answer the following questions

1. Which planets have a longer day than year?

2. Which planet has the most moons?

3. Which is the hottest planet?

4. Which planet has the shortest day and the longest year?

5. Which planet has the closest length of a day to the Earth?

6. Which is the smallest planet?

7. If an Astronomical Unit is the distance from the Earth to the Sun, how many astronomical units away is Pluto?

Table 1

Name Moons Average Temp.C Rotation Orbit Av. distance from Sun (million miles) Diameter (miles)
Mercury -167to427 58.6 days 87.97 days 36.04
Venus 243.2 days 224.70 days 67.11
Earth -51 to 48 23.9 hrs 365.26 days 92.99
Mars -123to-30 24.6 hrs 686.98 days 141.61
Jupiter -117 9.8 hrs 11.86 years 483.66
Saturn -180 10.7 hrs 29.46 years 886.72
Uranus -221 17.2 hrs 84.01 years 1783.38
Neptune -216 16.0 hrs 164.79 years 2794.38
Pluto -230 6.3 days 247.69 years 3666.19

What is the cosmos? What is the Universe?

What galaxy do we live in?

What does the Solar System consist of?

Give all the data relating to the sun.

How are the planets arranged in the Solar System?

Distinguish between the asteroids and the comets.

How could the Solar System have originated according to the “catastrophic” theory?

How could the Solar System have originated according to the nebular theory?

6.12 Write down a summarizing sentence for each paragraph of the text “The Universe and the Solar System”. On the basis of the above task prepare an oral summary of the text

sphere – сфера, шар

spheroid – сфероид

pole – полюс

layer – оболочка

atmosphere – атмосфера

hydrosphere – гидросфера

lithosphere – литосфера

liquid – жидкий

crust – земная кора

mantle – мантия

boundary – граница

granite – гранит

sedimentary rocks – осадочные породы

silicate rocks – силикатные породы

basalt – базальт

density – плотность

property - свойство

radioactivity – радиоактивность

lead – свинœец

uranium – уран

to yield – давать

approximately – приблизительно

to compare with масса Земли
a tiny speck различные свойства
the mass of earth период времени
rigid shell дно (ложа) океана
the ocean floor газообразное состояние
the earth’s interior сравнивать с …
different properties твердая оболочка
length of time gaseous state liquid state solid state крошечная частица внутренняя часть Земли твёрдое состояние жидкое состояние

Our planet on which we live, the earth seems to be a very large body. But compared with quite an ordinary star, like the sun the earth is only a tiny speck in the universe. The earth is not a true sphere but a spheroid flattened at the poles so that the axis on which it rotates is shorter by 27 miles than the equatorial diameter. The outer layers of the earth are the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the lithosphere. The atmosphere, the outermost layer, is the envelope of gases that surrounds the earth. The hydrosphere includes all the bodies of water on the earth in gaseous, liquid, and solid states. It makes up only 0.02 per cent of the mass of the earth.

The three major parts of the earth are the crust, the mantle, and the core. The outermost more or less rigid shell covering the earth constitutes the earth’s crust. It includes the rocks of the continents as well as the rocks beneath the ocean floor. The lower boundary of the crust is 20 to 25 miles beneath the surface of the continents and only about 4 miles beneath the ocean. The continents are made up of a rock type known as granite covered by a thin layer of sedimentary rocks, and underlain by basalt, while the floor of all ocean basins is mostly underlain by basalt with a thin layer of sedimentary rocks above.


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