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География Words and word combinations to the text
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Lesson 14 Antarctica

Make up all possible types of questions to the text 13.9

Text for written translation

The Peru Current, which flows northward along the western coast of South America, sometimes behaves in ways that scientists do not fully understand. Because this usually occurs soon after Christmas, it is called El Nino, Spanish for “the [Christ] Child”. Occasionally northerly winds replace the prevailing southerly winds and the cold Peru Current moves westward. In its place comes a warm current – El Nino. The warm waters of El Nino stop the upwelling (a climatic condition brought on by winds that persistently drive water away from the coast), and completely break down the normal ecological system. Most of the marine life moves in search of plankton – rich cooler waters.

Scientists now recognize that El Nino’s influences reach far beyond the west coast of South America. Indeed, it is now known that El Nino interacts with worldwide weather patterns. Rainfall shifts from the normally wet western Pacific toward the drier eastern Pacific. The Philippines and Indonesia experience drought.

Intense heat and drought sweep Australia. Ecuador and Peru receive heavy rain and floods take heavy tolls in human lives and property losses. Record-breaking snowfalls paralyze the east coast of North America, while western Canada and Alaska experience unusually mild winters. All result from a still-unexplained change in the weather.

In 1972 El Nino appeared quite suddenly. When it stopped, upwelling resumed. But most of the fish were gone. Without fish to consume the plankton, they overmultiplied and exhausted their food sources. Billions died and decomposed on the ocean floor. Decomposition used large quantities of the water’s oxygen, making the ocean off Peru unable to support fish until balance was restored.

13.11 Speak on:

1. geographical position of South America

2. physical features

3. climate

4. flora and fauna

5. El Nino

13.12 Get ready to speak about any South American country you like (see Les. 10, ex.10.12)

Antarctica /Antarctic Continent – Антарктида

Antarctic Region – Антарктика

pronounced – явный, резко выраженный

irregularity – неровность

to thrust – выступать, выдавать(ся)

enduring shelf – длинный риф/отмель

indentation – углубление

dimensions – размеры

glacier – ледник

save – за исключением

angular – треугольный

negligible – незначительный

discontinuous – прерывистый

devoid – лишённый (чего-либо)

marsh – болото, топь

pack ice – паковый лёд (пак)

to breed – размножаться

albatross – альбатрос

petrel – буревестник

penguin – пингвин

flightless bird – нелœетающая птица

lichen – лишайник

moss – мох

algae – морские водоросли

steepness – крутизна

embayment – залив

tapering projection – конусообразный выступ

little precipitation – малое количество осадков

to drift – дрейфовать

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