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Экология A new disarmament agenda
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As the world enters а new millennium, the United Nations is slowly putting in place а new arms control and disarmament regime. Jayantha Dhanapala, United Nations Under­-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs, has spelled out the various elements of this new agenda in the following terms:

1. Deeper cuts in existing nuclear arsenals;

2. Preventing arms race in outer space;

3. Eliminating battlefield nuclear weapons, and encouraging all nuclear-weapon coun­tries to endorse а no-first-use policy[17];

4. Halting the production of all un-safeguarded weapons-usable nuclear materials;

5. Ensuring universal membership in the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Biological Weapons Convention and entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty;

6. Promoting "disarmament for development";

7. Pursuing а "culture of prevention" rather than а "culture of reaction";

8. Strengthening the United Nations to promote ре асе and security;

9. Promoting greater transparency of data about military expenditure and arms trade.

Yet, as advisable as all of these initiatives mау be, they still fall short of what is needed. In fact, disarmament alone will not erase the threat of war or ensure peace. As Julius Nyerere, Tanzania's former President, said:

"War is not caused by weapons; these are simply implements used in war. Real and sustainable peace is therefore not obtained simply by abolishing arma­ments. For the basis of war is injustice; and the foundation of real peace is jus­tice and equality."

By providing а mechanism for preventing and defusing international conflicts, and promoting economic and social development and respect for human rights, the United Nations works towards establishing the conditions that make disarmament and peace possible.

2. Give English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:

1. сравнять с землей

2. договор о полном запрещении ядерных испытаний

3. конвенция о запрете использования противопехотных мин

4. запасы оружия

5. повышать безопасность

6. следующая задача

7. ценой чего-либо

8. совместные действия

9. быть связанным с чем-либо, ассоциироваться с чем-либо

10. устранить опасность войны

11. предпринимать меры по прекращению гонки вооружений

12. экспертные группы, осуществляющие определœенные исследования

13. вводить в действие, начинать осуществление

14. заместитель Генерального Секретаря (ООН) по вопросам Разоружения

15. не соответствовать чему-либо, оказываться недостаточным для чего-либо

3. Give Russian equivalents:

1. Weapons of mass destruction

2. Deteriorating relations among…

3. System of collective security

4. To achieve significant gain

5. World military expendi­ture

6. The costs remain prohibitively high

7. Dismantling and destroying weapons

8. A state's military strength cannot go beyond its economic base

9. to tackle non-military threats

10. Arms limitation agreements

11. Main deliberative body

12. Bodies concerned with disarmament

13. To halt the production of un-safeguarded weapon-usable nuclear materials

14. To erase the threat of war or ensure peace

15. A mechanism for preventing and defusing international conflicts

4. Answer the following questions:

1. What types of weapons are of specific concern to the UN? Why is it so?

2. Why was hope for peace replaced by fear? Would you have shared this fear if you have lived at that time? Why?

3. How did the situation change after the Cold War?

4. What does the word "disarmament" imply?

5. What is one of the main problems of security?

6. What are the primary goals of the UN as far as disarmament is concerned?

7. How can lasting peace be achieved?

8. Can disarmament contribute to security? Why?

9. Who is in charge of considering international security?

10. What does Disarmament Commission do?

11. What are the activities of Department for Disarmament Affairs?

12. Enumerate the main elements of a new disarmament agenda? Which of them seem the most important for you personally?

13. Comment on the words by Julius Nyerere. Do you agree with him?


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    As the world enters а new millennium, the United Nations is slowly putting in place а new arms control and disarmament regime. Jayantha Dhanapala, United Nations Under­-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs, has spelled out the various elements of this new agenda in the following terms: 1. Deeper cuts in existing nuclear arsenals; 2. Preventing arms race in outer space; 3. Eliminating battlefield nuclear weapons, and encouraging all nuclear-weapon coun­tries to endorse а... [читать подробенее]