Экология Human rights просмотров - 93
REFORMING THE UNITED NATIONS
Reforming the United Nations has been a priority for Secretary-General Kofi Annan, since his arrival in 1997. In the last eight years, the Secretary-General proposed and implemented numerous ideas and changes to bring the UN up to best international practices. This has included changes to work programmes, structures and systems, in headquarters locations and in the field.
Much of the reform agenda has been implemented, recognizing, nevertheless that not all the reforms were accepted by Member States. Understanding that the organization needs to continue improving, the Secretary General has made clear that 2005, the occasion of the UN's 60th anniversary, is a year for "bold decisions".
Much more has been invested in information technologies since the late 1990s. One visible benefit is that all the UN's official reports and publications may now be retrieved free of charge through the Official Documents System available over the internet. The UN website provides extensive materials in multiple languages, making available up-to-date information and images through multimedia sources; open sessions of the Security Council are now webcast along with other important meetings.
Overall, the organization has been able to do "more with less" and live within three consecutive budget cycles of zero or very limited nominal growth in the Organization's regular budget.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaimed by the General Assembly in 1948, sets out basic rights and freedoms to which all women and men are entitled - among them the right to life, liberty and nationality, to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, to work, to be educated, to take part in government.
These rights are legally binding by virtue of two International Covenants, to which most States are parties. One Covenant deals with economic, social and cultural rights and the other with civil and political rights. Together with the Declaration, they constitute the International Bill of Human Rights.
The Declaration laid the groundwork for more than 80 conventions and declarations on human rights, including conventions to eliminate racial discrimination and discrimination against women; conventions on the rights of the child, the status of refugees and the prevention of genocide; and declarations on self-determination, enforced disappearances and the right to development
With the standards-setting work nearly complete, the UN is shifting the emphasis of its human rights work to the implementation of human rights laws. The High Commissioner for Human Rights, who coordinates all UN human rights activities, works with governments to improve their observance of human rights, seeks to prevent violations and investigates abuses. The UN Commission on Human Rights, an intergovernmental body, holds public meetings to review the human rights performance of States. It also appoints independent experts - "special rapporteurs" - to report on specific human rights abuses or to examine human rights in specific countries.
UN human rights bodies are involved in early-warning and conflict prevention as well as in efforts to address root causes of conflict. A number of UN peacekeeping operations have a human rights component. In all, UN human rights field activities are currently being carried out in 27 countries or territories.
Promoting respect for human rights is increasingly central to UN development assistance. In particular, the right to development is seen as part of a dynamic process which integrates all civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights and by which the well-being of all individuals in a society is improved. Key to the enjoyment of the right to development is the eradication of poverty, a major UN goal.
2. International law
The UN Charter specifically calls on the United Nations to undertake the progressive codification and development of international law. The conventions, treaties and standards resulting from this work have provided a framework for promoting international peace and security and economic and social development. States which ratify these conventions are legally bound by them.
The International Law Commission prepares drafts on topics of international law which can then be incorporated into conventions and opened for ratification by States. Some of these conventions form the basis for law governing relations among States, such as the convention on diplomatic relations or the convention regulating the use of international watercourses. The Convention on the Law of the Sea seeks to ensure equitable access by all countries to the riches of the oceans, protect them from pollution and facilitate freedom of navigation and research. The Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs is the key international treaty against drug trafficking.
The UN Commission on International Trade Law develops rules and guidelines designed to harmonize and facilitate laws regulating international trade. The UN has also pioneered the development of international environmental law. Agreements such as the convention to combat desertification, the convention on the ozone layer and the convention on the transborder movement of hazardous wastes are administered by the UN Environment Programme.
To combat terrorism, the UN and its specialized agencies have developed international agreements that constitute the basic legal instruments against terrorism.
Используйте географические названия в аналогичном прогнозе погоды WEATHER GUIDE 1. Europe today Scandinavia will have heavy showers or longer spells of rain. A cold front from Finland to the Baltic states and into the eastern Alps will bring rain and thunderstorms, followed by much cooler air. South-eastern Europe will be warm with sunshine. Most of central and western Europe will be fine and dry with sunny spells, but there... [читать подробенее]
Fill the blanks with the derivatives of the words in brackets. Translate these points. Substitute the words in italics with the words from the text. 6. International human rights law is considered a post-World War II fact. 7. The United Nations was set up by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security. 8. The United Nations has six nation bodies. 9. The Universal Declaration is the first comprehensive human... [читать подробенее]
TEXT 1 Read the text to understand what information on international and regional programs on human rights is of primary importance or new for you. What do you know about international and regional organizations and their programs on human rights. Prove that these organizations play an important role in the life of humanity. I. WARMING-UP Express your thoughts on the subject. V. OVER TO YOUa) How do you understand the term “humanity” in... [читать подробенее]
Read the text to understand what information is of primary importance or new for you. Is. Explain in other words what racial minority is. In groups, make lists of the examples of the human rights violation. Make a report concerning factors during the world history which influenced the promotion of human rights. In pairs, discuss the main reasons to maintain human rights. Compare your opinions with other students. Unit 2 Human Rights Protection... [читать подробенее]
Read the text to understand what information on the European Convention on Human Rights is of primary importance or new for you. TEXT 2 I. LEAD-IN Decide in what cases your rights can be protected due to the Human Rights Act. Discuss these cases with your groupmates. -Someone is told at work that he (she) cannot wear a turban or sari even though it is a part of his (her) religion. -Someone has a relationship with a senior person at work and is dismissed, because... [читать подробенее]
III. PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE Translate these sentences. Справа Кемпелл і Коданс проти Сполученого Королівства (1982). У цій справі матері скаржників скаржились на застосування тілесних покарань як дисциплінарного заходу в державних школах Шотландії, які відвідували їхні діти. В заявах... [читать подробенее]
TEXT 1 Read the text to understand what information on the beginning and development of law-international cooperation in the field of human rights is of primary importance or new for you. Match the following English words and expressions with their I. WARMING-UP IV. WRITING Ask your partner. 1. Using information from the Internet sites (e.g. ) make a presentation (under 150 words) on: - International organizations; - International treaties. V. OVER TO... [читать подробенее]
Task 1. Vocabulary Revision. Insert the words ‘freedom of’ or ‘right to’ into the following word combinations. 1 ____________________ speech 2 ____________________ liberty 3 ____________________ information 4 ____________________ equality before the law 5 ____________________ a nationality 6 ____________________ religion 7 ____________________ education Task 2. Read the text and fill in the table. Human Rights People and their rights and freedoms shall be supreme... [читать подробенее]
HUMAN RIGHTS B. Here are the objectives of the International Criminal Court. Answer the questions below. Kofi Annan A. Read the following speech of Kofi Annan, United Nations Secretary General. Make up four questions, ask your partner to answer them. 8. Rome Statute of the INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT ‘In the prospect of an international criminal court lies the promise of universal justice. That is the simple hope of the vision. We are close to its... [читать подробенее]
70:9.1 Nature confers no rights on man, only life and a world in which to live it. Nature does not even confer the right to live, as might be deduced by considering what would likely happen if an unarmed man met a hungry tiger face to face in the primitive forest. Society's prime gift to man is security. 70:9.2 Gradually society asserted its rights and, at the present time, they are: 1. Assurance of food supply. 2. Military defense -- security through preparedness. 3. Internal peace... [читать подробенее]