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Экология Part II 1 страница
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Part I

KEYS

Chapter 1 (p. …..)

2. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into Russian:

1. twice in our lifetime;

2. the scourge of war;

3. to reaffirm;

4. fundamental human rights (principles, issues);

5. obligations arising from treaties;

6. to maintain justice / international peace and security;

7. to maintain friendly relations / contacts;

8. the common cause;

9. to maintain that … ;

10. the maintenance of peace and security;

11. for these ends;

12. to practice tolerance / to be tolerant of smth.;

13. in the common interest;

14. economic and social advancement;

15. to resolve to do smth. / to resolve (up) on doing smth.

16. to resolve a problem;

17. to resolve all doubts.

3. Translate the following questions into English and check your partner’s answers:

1. Каковы основные задачи ООН? Ø to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war; Ø to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small; Ø to ensure the maintenance of respect for the obligations arising from treaties; Ø to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.
2. Каким образом ООН должна выполнять свои задачи? Ø by practicing tolerance and by peaceful coexistence of states with different social systems; Ø by uniting all the member states to maintain international peace and security; Ø by ensuring the non-use of armed forces save in the common interest; Ø by employing international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples

Chapter 2 (p. …..)

2. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into Russian:

1. to devise a name; to devise a plan;

2. to pledge oneself to do smth; to pledge to do smth.

3. to pledge one’s word; to pledge one’s honour;

4. an ever-lasting world

5. set of rules

6. to deliberate what to do / to deliberate whether one should do smth / to deliberate on a question;

7. original member states;

8. to constitute a treaty that is legally binding on the signatories

9. to stipulates

10. a crusader for human rights

11. to rest on Enlightenment ideas

12. to identify the basis rights that every person should enjoy

13. provisions

14. to advance the cause of freedom and justice

15. to come into effect

3. Translate the following questions into English and check your partner’s answers:

1. Кто придумал название ООН?   -- President Franklin D. Roosevelt
2. Когда это название было впервые применено?   -- In the declaration by United Nations of January 1, 1942
3. Сколько стран дали обещание бороться против стран «Оси»?   -- 26 nations
4. Какие страны составляли «Ось»?   -- Italy, Germany, Japan
5. Каковы учредительные документы ООН -- the UN Charter; the universal declaration of human rights
5. Сколько стран приняли участие в разработке проекта Устава?   -- 50 countries
6. Где был разработан проект устава?   -- at the UN Conference on International Organization which met at San Francisco from April 25 to June 26,1945
7. Какие страны выработали предложения, которые легли в основу Устава?   -- China, the USSR, the UK, the USA
8. Когда и где были выработаны эти предложения?   -- at Dunmarton Oaks, in August – October, 1944
9. Когда был подписан Устав ООН?   -- June 26, 1945
10. Сколько государств считаются первоначальными членами ООН?   -- 51
11. Когда и какими странами был подписан Устав ООН?   -- October 24, 1945 by China, France, The USSR, the UK, the USA and by a majority of other signatories
12. Что определяет устав ООН? -- the major components of the organization; its lines of authority; the responsibilities and rights of its members, i.e. basic principles of international relations
13. Каковы основные цели ООН , в соответствии с уставом? -- to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights; to be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations
12. Какой день празднуется во всœем мире как день ООН?   October 24
When was the UN's Commission on Human Rights founded? -- in 1946
What is unique about the Universal Declaration of Human rights? -- it is unique both in its breadth and in its success as an international standard
Who was the UN's Commission on Human Rights led by? -- by the former first Lady Eleanor Roosevelt
What does the Universal Declaration of Human rights set out? -- the basis rights that every person should enjoy
What is the difference between the Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human rights?   -- Unlike the Charter the Universal Declaration is not a treaty and its provisions are therefore are not law
When did the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights come into effect? -- in 1976

Chapter 3 (p. …..)

2. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into Russian:

1. the purpose of the UN;

2. the fundamental freedoms;

3. to attain common ends;

4. to fulfil obligations;

5. to settle international disputes;

6. the maintenance of international peace and security.

3.Translate the following questions into English and check your partner’s answers:

1. Каковы цели ООН? Ø to maintain international peace and security; Ø to develop friendly relations among nations; Ø to achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms; Ø to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
2. В соответствии с какими принципами действует ООН? Ø the sovereign equality of all its Members; Ø fulfilment of the Charter obligations; Ø the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means; Ø non-use of force and threat against other states; Ø assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the Charter; Ø ensuring that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles

4. Translation:

The United Nations was established on 24 October 1945 by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every nation in the world belongs to the UN: membership now totals 189 countries.

When States become Members of the United Nations, they agree to accept the obligations of the UN Charter, an international treaty which sets out basic principles of international relations. According to the Charter, the UN has four purposes: to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights, and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

UN Members are sovereign countries. The United Nations is not a world government, and it does not make laws. It does, however, provide the means to help resolve international conflict and formulate policies on matters affecting all of us. At the UN, all the Member States - large and small, rich and poor, with differing political views and social systems - have a voice and vote in this process.

Chapter 4 (p. …..)

2. Translate the following questions into English and check your partner’s answers:

1. Какая страна может быть членом ООН? -- Membership in the United Nations is open to all peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the Charter and are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
2. Какие государства считаются первоначальными членами ООН? -- The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, sign and ratify the Charter.
3. Рекомендации какого органа ООН необходимы для принятия страны в ООН Генеральной Ассамблеей? -- The admission of other states to membership in the United Nations will be effected upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
4. В каких случаях членство страны в ООН может быть приостановлено, либо страна может быть исключена из ООН? -- A state may be suspended if the Security Council is taking enforcement action against it; expelled if it persistently violates the Principles contained in the Charter.
5. Каковы официальные языки Генеральной Ассамблеи? -- Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish
6. Одинаковы ли официальные языки для всœех органов ООН? -- No, they are not
7. Каковы официальные языки совета безопасности? -- Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish

Chapter 5 (p. …..)

2. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into Russian:

1. collaboration in some fields

2. to make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of a situation;

3. to impair friendly relations;

4. trusteeship; Trusteeship Council / trusteeship system / agreement;

5. to apportion contributions;

6. breach of the peace / law / contract / justice / promise / order / discipline;

7. with a view

8. to meet in regular session;

9. to convene / to call a special session;

10. to concur / to concur with smb. / concurrence of ideas, options / the concurring votes of the permanent members;

11. an emergency session / measures / powers;

12. to be represented on a committee; to refer a question to a committee; an ad hoc committee; a standing committee; a credentials committee;

3. Translate the following questions into English and check your partner’s answers:

1. Сколько представителœей может иметь каждая страна в Генеральной Ассамблее? The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations. Each Member shall have not more than five representatives in the General Assembly. Each state decides the way in which it chooses its representatives.
2. Как часто созываются сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи?     In recent years, the Assembly has been in session throughout the year.
3. Through how many main committees does the General Assembly deal with its work? Because of the great number of questions which the Assembly is called upon to consider, the Assembly allocates most questions to its six Main Committees: -First Committee--Disarmament and International Security Committee -Second Committee--Economic and Financial Committee -Third Committee--Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee -Fourth Committee--Special Political and Decolonization Committee -Fifth Committee--Administrative and Budgetary Committee -Sixth Committee--Legal Committee There is also a General Committee, composed of the President and 21 Vice-Presidents of the Assembly and the chairmen of the six Main Committees and a Credentials Committee. The Credentials Committee consists of nine members appointed by the Assembly on the proposal of the President at each session who reports to the Assembly on the credentials of representatives

4.Translate the following questions into English and check your partner’s answers

1. Каковы функции Генеральной Ассамблеи? Ø to consider and make recommendations on cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including disarmament and arms regulation; Ø to discuss any question relating to international peace and security and, except where a dispute or situation is being discussed by the Security Council, to make recommendations on it; Ø to discuss and, with the same exception, make recommendations on any question within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations;; Ø to initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation, the development and codification of international law; the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and international collaboration in economic, social, cultural, educational and health fields;
2. Какие еще функции выполняет Генеральная Ассамблея? Ø to make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation, regardless of origin, which might impair friendly relations among nations; Ø to receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other United Nations organs; Ø to consider and approve the United Nations budget and to apportion the contributions among Members; Ø to elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the members of the Economic and Social Council and those members of the Trusteeship Council that are elected; Ø to elect jointly with the Security Council the Judges of the International Court of Justice; and, on the recommendation of the Security Council, to appoint the Secretary-General  
3. Как проходит голосование в комитетах и подкомитетах?  

4.Translation

The United Nations has six main organs. Five of them - the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat - are based at UN Headquarters in New York. The sixth, the International Court of Justice, is located at The Hague, the Netherlands.

All UN Member States are represented in the General Assembly - a kind of parliament of nations which meets to consider the world's most pressing problems. Each Member State has one vote. Decisions on "important matters," such as international peace and security, admitting new members, the UN budget and the budget for peacekeeping, are decided by two-thirds majority. Other matters are decided by simple majority. In recent years, a special effort has been made to reach decisions through consensus, rather than by taking a formal vote. The Assembly cannot force action by any State, but its recommendations are an important indication of world opinion and represent the moral authority of the community of nations.

The Assembly holds its annual regular session from September to December. When necessary, it may resume its session, or hold a special or emergency session on subjects of particular concern. When the Assembly is not meeting, its work is carried out by its six main committees, other subsidiary bodies and the UN Secretariat.

Chapter 6 (p. …..)

2. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into Russian:

1. international friction

2. to vote on questions/concurring votes/to abstain from voting

3. pacific settlement (of a dispute)

4. to lay down the conditions

5. day-to-day work

6. to administer the programmes

7. to answer to smb for smth

8. the discharge of duties

9. an array of issues

10. to apprise activity

3. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into English:

1. иметь право быть мгновенно переизбранным

2. изучать ситуацию

3. текущие проблемы (вопросы)

4. голосовать "за"

5. вопросы, выносимые на рассмотрение Совета Безопасности

6. работать по месту проживания

7. служить посредником в международных спорах

8. тщательно изучать тенденции в экономической и социальной сферах

9. глобальные проблемы

10. напряжение создаваемое крайне важностью комплексного подхода (к примеру к обязанностям)

4. Translate the following questions into Russian and check your partner’s answers:

1. What is the Security Council composed of? -- of 5 permanent members – China; France; the USA; Russia; The UK
2. Enumerate functions of the UN Security Council - to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations; - to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction; - to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement; - to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments; - to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken; - to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression; - to take military action against an aggressor; - to recommend the admission of new Members; - to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas"; - to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice
3. How are the matters decided in the Security Council? -- Voting in the Security Council on all matters other than questions of procedure is byan affirmative vote of at least nine members.
4. What is known as the "veto"? -- the rule of “great Power unanimity”
5. Who can participate in the discussion of matters brought to the Security Council? -- Any Member of the United Nations, which is not a member of the Security Council may participate in the discussion of any question brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member are specially affected. Both members and non-members are invited to take part in the Council’s discussions when they are parties being considered by the Council.
6. Who heads the Secretariat? --the Secretary General
7. How is the Secretary General appointed? -- he is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five- year, renewable term
8. What are the duties of the Secretariat? -- They are as varied as the problems dealt with by the United Nations: - to administer peacekeeping operations - to mediate international disputes - to survey economic and social trends - to prepare studies on human rights and sustainable development. - to inform the world's communications media about the work of the United Nations -to organize international conferences on issues of worldwide concern - to and interpret speeches and translate documents into the Organization's official languages.
9. Who are staff members responsible to? -- the UN alone
10. What does CEO stand for? -- Chief Executive Officer
11. What is the Secretary General empowered to do? - to "bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security"
12. Can be it said that the Secretary General's work is a complicated one? Why? - yes; The Secretary-General would fail if he did not take careful account of the concerns of Member States, but he must also uphold the values and moral authority of the United Nations, and speak and act for peace, even at the risk, from time to time, of challenging or disagreeing with those same Member States
13. What is the difference between good offices and mediation? -- good offices means that a third party offers a location for discussions among disputants but does not participate in the actual negotiations -- mediation implies that a third party proposes a nonbinding solution to a controversy between two other states

5. Translation

The UN Charter gives the Security Council primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. The Council may convene at any time, day or night, whenever peace is threatened. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to carry out the Council's decisions.

There are 15 Council members. Five of these - China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States - are permanent members. The other 10 are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. Member States have discussed making changes in Council membership to reflect today's political and economic realities.

Decisions of the Council require nine yes votes. Except in votes on procedural questions, a decision cannot be taken if there is a no vote, or veto, by a permanent member.

When the Council considers a threat to international peace, it first explores ways to settle the dispute peacefully. It may suggest principles for a settlement or undertake mediation. In the event of fighting, the Council tries to secure a ceasefire. It may send a peacekeeping mission to help the parties maintain the truce and to keep opposing forces apart.

The Council can take measures to enforce its decisions. It can impose economic sanctions or order an arms embargo. On rare occasions, the Council has authorized Member States to use "all necessary means," including collective military action, to see that its decisions are carried out.

The Council also makes recommendations to the General Assembly on the appointment of a new Secretary-General and on the admission of new Members to the UN

Chapter I (p…)

2. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into Russian:

1. The three-day summit

2. to be at the centre of one's deliberations

3. reaffirm one's faith in smth

4. resolve to counter/ resolve to intensify/ resolve to ensure

5. strive to do smth

6. to spare nо effort

7. abject conditions

8. а planet irredeemably spoilt by human activities

9. the rule of law

10. chief deliberative organ

11. a comprehensive reform

3. Translate the following questions into Russian and check your partner’s answers:

1. When and where did the Millennium Summit take place? -- it was held at UN Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000.
2. Who attended the summit? How was it dubbed? -- 100 heads of States, 47 heads of Government, three Crown Princes, five Vice­ Presidents and three Deputy Prime Ministers -- the largest gathering in history
3. What values were identified during the Summit? Freedom; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Respect for nature; Shared responsibility
4. What problems are awaiting their settlement? -- measures in the realm of peace and disarmament; to counter drug problem; eliminations of WMD; reduction of poverty; environmental problems; strengthening of the rule of law; strengthening of the UN
5. What timetable was set for fighting poverty? Halving the number of people in extreme poverty (by the year 2015); Ensuring universal primary education for boys and girls (by 2015); Reducing maternal mortality (by three quarters by 2015); Halting the spread of НIV/ AIDS (by 2015); Improving the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers (by 2020).

4. Translation

For undernourished people of the world there is nothing more important than struggle with hunger. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was founded in October 1945 with a mandate to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity, and to better the condition of rural populations.

Since its inception, FAO has worked to alleviate poverty and hunger by promoting agricultural development, improved nutrition and the pursuit of food security - the access of all people at all times to the food they need for an active and healthy life. The staff offers direct development assistance, collects, analyses and disseminates information. Besides the organization provides its member-states with agricultural policy and planning advice, legislative initiatives and creation of international strategy for rural development and decrease of hunger. FAO acts as an international forum for debate on food and agriculture issues where governments' representatives can meet on equal terms, discuss agricultural policy and hold negotiations on various agreements.

FAO is active in land and water development, plant and animal production, forestry, fisheries, economic and social policy. It also plays a major role in dealing with food and agricultural emergencies.

A specific priority of the Organization is encouraging sustainable agricultural development, a long-term strategy for the conservation and management of natural resources. It aims to meet the needs of both present and future generations through programmes that do not degrade the environment and are technically appropriate and economically viable.

Chapter 2 (p…)

2. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into Russian:

1. to strain (forests, farmlands, atmosphere)

2. to take the lead

3. heritage

4. to act as a broker

5. public outreach in smth

6. freshwater

7. UN-sponsored

8. sustainable development

9. to be monitored by a UN body

10. emissions of greenhouse gases

11. carbon dioxide

12. global agreement on smth

13. conservation and sustainable use

14. to ratify

15. long-term consequences

16. mounting evidence

17. to comply with

18. hard-and-fast target

3. Translate the following questions into Russian and check your partner’s answers:

1. What UN bodies participate in programmes concerning environmental aspect? Have you heard about them before? -- UNEP (the United Nations Environmental Program); UNESCO (the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization); WMO (the World Meteorological Organization)
2. What is known as the Earth Summit? When and where did it Earth Summit take place? -- Conference on Environment and Development; it took place in Rio de Janeiro, in 1992
3. What documents were signed at this summit? -- Agenda 21; the Convention on Climate Change; the Convention on Biological Diversity
4. What was the Convention on Climate Change aimed at? -- it targets industrial and other emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide
5. Enumerate the main goals of Convention on Biological Diversity -- The conservation of biodiversity; the sustainable use of the components of biodiversity; sharing the benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources in а fair and equitable way.
6. Why was the meeting in Kyoto in 1997 held? Who sponsored it? -- to address the problems of global warming and to push matters along; it was sponsored by the UN
7. What is the essence of the Kyoto Protocol? -- it addresses global warming caused by human action
8. Why do some counties reject to ratify the Kyoto Protocol? -- it can mean potential loss of economic growth
9. How can one account for complexity of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol? -- enormous challenges posed by the control of greenhouse gas emissions; diverse political and economic interests are to be balanced in order to reach an agreement;
10. How can costs on its implementation be reduced? -- through "no regret" strategy
11. What is the essence of mechanisms proposed by the Kyoto Protocol? -- countries that find it par­ticularly expensive to reduce emissions at home can pay for cheaper emissions cuts else­where


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