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Экология Part II 2 страница
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4. Translation

Within the first decades of the UN's activity ecological problems were seldom to occur on the international agenda. Primary attention in this realm was paid to search and exploitation of natural resources, aimed at ensuring such a situation when specifically developing countries could take control over there natural resources. During the 60s a host of agreements concerning sea-water pollution, especially resulted in oil spills was signed. However as far as ecological situation continued deteriorating on a global scale international community beginning from the 70s has started showing greater and greater concern about how development affects the planet's ecology and peoples' well-being. Thus the UN became the leading body in what concerned environment and the major advocate of such new conception as "sustainable development".

The link between economic development and ecological degradation was first put on the agenda in 1972 at the UN Conference on Environmental Problems that took place in Stockholm. After the Conference the governments established the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) that still remains the major body for solving global ecological problems.

Chapter 3 (p…)

2. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into Russian:

1. to monitor ceasefire

2. parties engaged in conflict; parties to а conflict

3. threat to the peace

4. one of the quintessential functions

5. tailor-made

6. to separate hostile forces

7. to decide size, objectives and time frame

8. а peace agreement

9. а complex mix of inter-state and internal conflicts

10. to tackle а number of challenges concurrently

11. to disarm and demobilize combatants

12. providing humanitarian assis­tance

13. to relieve immediate suffering

14. claim significant successes

15. high state of readi­ness

16. decline to participate

3. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into English:

1. решать проблемы политическими методами

2. удерживать враждующие стороны от начала военных действий

3. возникнуть на определœенной базе

4. защищать буферные зоны (зоны, где не ведутся боевые действия)

5. военные действия прерываются

6. вести переговоры о прекращении огня

7. нарушить соглашение о прекращении огня

8. противостоять упорствующим повстанцам

9. вмешательство из-за рубежа

10. создавать основы долгосрочного экономического роста и развития

11. временная администрация

12. полагаться на договоренности, принятые в последнюю минуту и носящие спонтанный характер

13. резервное соглашение

14. решать задачу быстрого размещения войск

4. Translate the following questions into Russian and check your partner’s answers:

1. According to the UN Charter peacekeeping was initially regarded as one of the tools to be employed by the UN, wasn't it? -- no it wasn't
2. What basis peacekeeping evolved on? --Peacekeeping originated and evolved on а largely ad hoc basis. Each operation has been tailor-made to meet the demands of а specific conflict
3. What do Chapters VI and VII define? -- Ch VI outlines specific means which countries may use to settle disputes: negotia­tions, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional institutions or arrangements or other peaceful means; -- Ch VII provides for enforcement action by UN member states, including the use of armed force or other collective measures for dealing with threats to peace
4. Who are peacekeepers? -- peacekeepers are people helping the parties to а conflict to resolve their dif­ferences peacefully
5. What are the objectives of peacekeeping (peacekeepers)? Is their role necessarily confined to maintaining the truce? -- to restore and main­tain peace; to monitor ceasefires; separate hostile forces; to maintain buffer zones -- No
6. Speak about the first peacekeeping operation -- in 1947, the United Nations adopted а plan to divide Palestine and create а Jewish, and аn Arab State. On 15 May 1948, the British administrative power formally ended its control over Palestine, and within 24 hours the State of Israel was proclaimed. Fierce hostilities broke out immediately between the Arab and Jewish communities. Count Bernadotte of Sweden, who was appointed by the United Nations to mediate the conflict, was able to negotiate а ceasefire.
7. How does a peacekeeping operation start? -- Peacekeeping operations are normally set up by the Security Council, the UN organ with primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. The Council decides the operation's size, its overall objectives and its time frame. As the United Nations has no military or civilian police force of its own, member states decide whether to par­ticipate in а mission and, if so, what personnel and equipment they are willing to offer. Under the present structure, it can take considerable time for the actual forces to be authorized and reach their destination.
8. What is a traditional understanding of peacekeeping? -- The traditional concept of UN peacekeeping, as it was first developed, was to deploy in а "buffer zone" separating fighting forces
9. Why did the traditional understanding of peacekeeping change through years? -- It changed because of the nature of conflicts has changed in recent years
10. What are the problems peacekeepers encounter? -- necessity to tackle a variety of problems; events can have internal roots, but their consequences can become international; destabilizing refugee flows; danger posed by factions pursuing each other across the boarders;
11. What are the contemporary problems the UN has to tackle? -- to help to maintain ceasefires and to disarm and demobilize combatants; to assist the parties to build or strengthen vital institutions and processes and respect for human rights, to provide internal monitoring of elections following electoral reform; to provide humanitarian assis­tance; and to lay the groundwork for longer-term economic growth and development through interim administration
12. Are all the operations successful? -- No they aren't
13. What are the reasons for failures? -- Delays in the deployment of forces; the small number of military standby arrangements that are in а high state of readi­ness; the difficulty of recruiting qualified civil personnel for missions, such as police officers, judges or people to run correctional institutions to focus only on law ­enforcement needs.
14. How does the UN try to cope with modern challenges? -- it has been seeking to build а reliable system in which trained and equipped troops are available immediately after the Security Council's decision to establish an operation; "standby" arrangements

5. Translation

Initially United Nations Protection Forces (UNPROFOR) was established in Croatia as an interim arrangement to create the conditions of peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the Yugoslav crisis. UNPROFOR's mandate was to ensure that the three "United Nations Protected Areas" (UNPAs) in Croatia were demilitarized and that all persons residing in them were protected from fear of armed attack. In addition, UNPROFOR monitored implementation of a cease-fire agreement signed by the Croatian Government and local Serb authorities in March 1994 following a flare-up of fighting in January and September 1993.

In June 1992, as the conflict intensified and extended to Bosnia and Herzegovina, UNPROFOR's mandate and strength were enlarged in order to ensure the security and the delivery of humanitarian assistance to that city and its environs. UNPROFOR was authorized to use force in self-defence in reply to attacks against these areas, and to coordinate with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) the use of air power in support of its activities.

In December 1992, UNPROFOR was also deployed in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, to monitor and report any developments in its border areas which could undermine confidence and stability in that Republic and threaten its territory. On 31 March 1995, the Security Council decided to restructure UNPROFOR, replacing it with three separate but interlinked peacekeeping operations

Chapter 4 (p…)

2. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into Russian:

1. to level

2. comprehensive nuclear test-ban-treaty

3. convention banning land­mines

4. weapons stockpiles

5. enhance security

6. immediate objective

7. joint actions

8. to couple with

9. at the cost of

10. to eliminate the danger of war

11. to implement measures to halt and reverse the arms race

12. expert groups carrying out specific studies

13. to put in place

14. Under­-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs

15. fall short of

3. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into English:

1. оружие массового уничтожения

2. ухудшать отношения между…

3. система коллективной безопасности

4. достигать существенных успехов

5. расходы на вооружение во всœем мире

6. расходы остаются недопустимо высокими

7. ликвидация и уничтожение оружия

8. военная мощь государства не может выходить за рамки возможности ее экономики

9. решать проблемы невоенного характера

10. соглашения об ограничении вооружения

11. главный совещательный орган

12. организации, занимающиеся проблемами разоружения

13. остановить неконтролируемое производство материалов для создания ядерного оружия

14. устранять угрозу войны или гарантировать мир

15. механизм для предотвращения и нейтрализации международных конфликтов

4. Translate the following questions into Russian and check your partner’s answers:

1. What types of weapons are of specific concern to the UN? Why is it so? -- small arms and light weapons
2. Why was hope for peace replaced by fear? Would you have shared this fear if you have lived at that time? Why? -- relations among states, and particularly among the Security Council's permanent members deteriorated; this undermined the system of collective security
3. How did the situation change after the Cold War? -- there were concluded the following treaties: а comprehensive nuclear test-ban-treaty; а convention banning land­mines; a convention banning production, use оf stockpiling of chemical weapons; numbers of nuclear weapons almost halved; and world military expendi­ture declined by some 30 per cent between 1990 and 1998.
4. What does the word "disarmament" imply? -- "disarmament" is а process of reducing the size of and expenditures оn armed forces, dismantling and destroying weapons,
5. What is one of the main problems of security? -- а widening gap between а state's military strength and its economic base; no state can ultimately ensure its own secu­rity at the cost of another state's security, real or perceived
6. What are the primary goals of the UN as far as disarmament is concerned? -- to eliminate the danger of war; to implement measures to halt and reverse the arms race, clearing the path towards lasting peace
7. How can lasting peace be achieved? -- joint actions by states to tackle non-military threats to security, coupled with efforts towards disarmament, improve prospects for а more secure world
8. Can disarmament contribute to security? Why? -- yes, it can; it helps progressively eliminate the capacity to produce new weapons, and release military personnel and integrate them into civilian life
9. Who is in charge of considering international security? -- the General Assembly
10. What do Disarmament Commission ? -- it provides an annual forum for discussion of specific disarmament issues
11. What are the activities of Department for Disarmament Affairs? -- it provides substantive and organizational support to the bodies concerned with disarmament and to expert groups carrying out specific studies; prepares reports and undertakes research; implements а disarmament information programme launched in 1982; it is also responsible for three regional centers for peace and disarmament in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean
12. Enumerate the main elements of a new disarmament agenda? Which of them seem the most important for you personally? -- Deeper cuts in existing nuclear arsenals; preventing arms race in outer space; eliminating battlefield nuclear weapons, and encouraging all nuclear-weapon coun­tries to endorse а no-first-use policy; halting the production of all un-safeguarded weapons-usable nuclear materials; ensuring universal membership in the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Biological Weapons Convention and entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty; promoting "disarmament for development"; pursuing а "culture of prevention" rather than а "culture of reaction"; strengthening the United Nations to promote ре асе and security; promoting greater transparency of data about military expenditure and arms trade.
13. Comment on the words by Julius Nyerere. Do you agree with him? --

5. Translation

The concept of peacekeeping is not specifically mentioned as such anywhere in the Charter of the United Nations. It evolved as a pragmatic solution in the early years of the Organization when it became apparent that some of the Charter provisions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security could not be implemented as envisaged. The first operation, the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), was created in 1948 to supervise the truce called for by the Security Council in Palestine. An overview of UN peacekeeping activities is provided by the listings of past and current operations posted on the website of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations.

As a rule, peacekeeping operations are established by the Security Council, the organ designated by the Charter as primarily responsible for the maintenance of peace and security; the financial aspects of peacekeeping, on the other hand, are considered by the General Assembly. This guide aims to provide an overview of the primary documentation in both organs relating to the creation and execution of peacekeeping operations and to outline the research options available.

Chapter 5 (p…)

2. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into Russian:

1. to meet the challenge

2. to give a damn

3. to make all bodies relevant to modern times

4. to put one's interests ahead of

5. knee-jerk

6. to debunk the notion

7. staff in the field

8. а sustainable future

9. to rededicate oneself to

10. in the aftermath of

11. to find consensus solutions

12. to harness the power of

13. to benefits the people

14. to map out priorities

15. to revitalize

16. overall pursuit of efficiency and results

3. Check your partner’s translation and correct the mistakes if any. Do back translation into English:

1. придавать большее значение чему-либо

2. отзывать мандат

3. проходить красной нитью

4. отличное доходное место

5. бюрократизм, волокита

6. ООН, в большей степени ориентированная на интересы людей

7. организация, ориентированная на получение результата

8. отлаженное (эффективное) выполнение программ

9. выступать в роли катализатора для стимулирования деятельности (стимулировать деятельность)

10. быть местом разработки стандартов

11. плеяда новых, энергичных негосударственных акторов

12. сосредоточиться на результате деятельности, а не на затратах и ходе работы

13. борьба с нищетой

14. возродить значимость

15. идти полным ходом

4. Translate the following questions into Russian and check your partner’s answers:

1. Why does the UN need reforms? -- to meet the challenges of the world constantly changed by the process of globalization ; to make all bodies of the UN more relevant to modern times
2. Is the word "reform" a simple notion? --"Reform" is always a loaded word because its meaning is often so subjective and because any significant change will affect power relationships and the status of particular member-state
3. What are calls for reform fed by? -- they are fed by concern that the Secretariat, the agencies, and other parts of the UN system could be much more effective, efficient, and accountable than they; by allegations that the bureaucracy has been a juicy career plum for a small group of administrators who put their interests ahead of those of the organization; the UN response to calls for reform has too often been knee-jerk and has not tried to address the significant problems that exist within the bureaucracy.
4. Are the principles of the Charter relevant nowadays? Has anything changed since 1946? -- yes, they are; the way we deliver on the aims and objectives written in the Charter has to move with the times
5. What kind of renewal does the UN need? -- to make it more people-oriented; а more results-based organization; more effective and efficient;
6. "The UN is flawed but indispensable institution that we have two choices with: weaken it by undermining it or trying to strengthen it by getting it to correct its flaws". Comment on. --
7. What does strengthening of the UN depend on? -- it depends оn governments and especially оn their will­ingness to work with others (the private sector, non-governmental organizations and multilateral agencies) to find consensus solutions
8. Why would it be difficult to meet contemporary challenges without the UN? -- there is no other organization that could substitute the UN
9. How can the goals of the reforms be achieved? -- to act as a catalyst to stimulate actions by the others; to exploit the technologies, i.e. information technologies
10. What are the areas where reforms must be carried out? --Identifying core strengths; Networking for change; Making digital connections.; Advancing the quiet revolution
11. Why is it important to place people at the centre of the Organization? And what does it mean? -- it was founded to meet the needs of people; it means focusing on how аnу given programme benefits the people who are the intended target;
12. What kind of a UN does Kofi Annan would like to create? -- an organization with renewed confidence of member-states in the relevance and effectiveness of the Organization and revitalized spirit and commitment of its staff".
13. What were the current reports devoted to? -- they deal with the management of the Secretariat and confirms that the UN needs a significant investment in how it recruits, develops and retains its people, how it procures goods and sources services, and how it manages and accounts for the taxpayer funds of all member-states in its overall pursuit of efficiency and results
14. How are the results of the reforms evaluated? Are they enough? -- restructuring is under way and a lot has been done in order to improve its work and contribute to its effectiveness and efficiency; no they aren't, still some objectives haven't been achieved yet

5. Translation


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