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Part II

Chapter 1

"We will have time to reach the Millennium Development Goals – worldwide and in most, or even all, individual countries. But we cannot win overnight. Success will require sustained action across the entire decade between now and the deadline. It takes time to train the teachers, nurses and engineers; to build the roads, schools and hospitals; to grow the small and large businesses able to create the jobs and income needed. So we must start now. And we must more than double global development assistance over the next few years. Nothing less will help to achieve the Goals."

United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan

The Millennium Summit: Charting а new vision for the new era

The Millennium Summit of the United Nations was held at UN Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000. The three-day summit, attended by 100 heads of States, 47 heads of Government, three Crown Princes, five Vice­ Presidents and three Deputy Prime Ministers was the largest gathering of world leaders in history. At the centre of their deliberations was the Millennium Report of the Secretary-General.

In а declaration adopted by the summit, the world leaders reaffirm their faith in the United Nations as the indispensable common house of the entire human family, "through which we will seek to realize our universal aspirations for peace, cooperation and development".

The declaration identifies six core values as "essential" to international relations, namely:

1. Freedom;

2. Equality;

3. Solidarity;

4. Tolerance;

5. Respect for nature;

6. Shared responsibility

The declaration sets out а number of measures in the area of peace and disarmament, including providing the United Nations with the necessary resources for conflict prevention, peacekeeping and related tasks. Leaders also resolve to counter the world drug problem and fight transnational crime. In addition, they say they will strive to eliminate weapons of mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons, while working to end the illicit traffic in small arms.

"We will spare nо effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty," the declaration states. Leaders set out а specific timetable for reducing poverty:

· Halving the number of people in extreme poverty (by the year 2015);

· Ensuring universal primary education for boys and girls (by 2015);

· Reducing maternal mortality (by three quarters by 2015);

· Halting the spread of НIV/ AIDS (by 2015);

· Improving the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers (by 2020).

On the environment, the leaders declare, "We must spare nо effort to free all of humanity, and above all our children and grandchildren, from the threat of living on а planet irredeemably spoilt by human activities, and whose resources would nо longer be sufficient for their needs."

"We will spare no effort to promote democracy and strengthen the rule of law, as well as respect for all internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms," the declaration states.

On strengthening the United Nations, the leaders reaffirm the central posi­tion of the General Assembly as the chief deliberative, policy-making and repre­sentative UN organ. They also resolve "to intensify our efforts to achieve а comprehensive reform of the Security Council". In addition, leaders resolve to ensure that the United Nations is provided with timely and predictable resources to do its job. The leaders conclude their declaration by pledging "our unstinting supportfor these common objectives, and our determination to achieve them".

2. Give English equivalents for the following Russian expressions

1. трехдневный саммит

2. ключевые (основные) пункты обсуждения

3. вновь подтвердить свою веру в…

4. принять решение противостоять чему-либо/активизировать усилия/гарантировать

5. прилагать усилия сделать что-либо

6. не пожалеть никаких усилий

7. ужасные условия

8. планета͵ которой был нанесен невосполнимый ущерб деятельностью человека

9. норма права

10. главный совещательный орган

11. всœеобъемлющая реформа

3. Answer the following questions

1. When and where did the Millennium Summit take place?

2. Who attended the meeting? How was it dubbed?

3. What values were identified during the Summit?

4. What problems are awaiting their settlement?

5. What timetable was set for fighting poverty?

4. Translate form Russian into English

Для хронически недоедающих людей всœего мира нет ничего более важного, чем борьба с голодом. Продовольственная и сельскохозяйственная организация Объединœенных Наций(ФАО)[5] была учреждена в октябре 1945 году с целью повышения качества питания, роста производительности в аграрном секторе, улучшения условий жизни сельского населœения и содействия мировому экономическому росту.

Изначально ФАО ставит своей задачей снижение уровня бедности и голода, обеспечивая развитие сельского хозяйства, улучшение питания и решение проблем безопасности продуктов питания, обеспечивая доступ к продуктам питания, необходимым для активной и здоровой жизни. Сотрудники организации собирают, анализируют и распространяют информацию, способствующую достижению целœей в области развития. Вместе с тем, организация делится со своими членами обширным опытом в области формулирования сельскохозяйственной политики, поддержки, планирования, подготовки законодательства и создания национальной стратегии развития сельской местности и снижения голода. ФАО является международным форумом, где представители государств могут встречаться на равных, обсуждать сельскохозяйственную политику и вести переговоры о соглашениях.

ФАО активно принимает участие в вопросах развития земельных и водных ресурсов, животноводства, лесных угодий, рыболовства, а также экономической и социальной политики. Также она играет ведущую роль в решении чрезвычайных проблем, связанных с продуктами питания и сельским хозяйством.

Особое внимание организация уделяет экологически рациональному сельскохозяйственному развитию, долгосрочным стратегиям по сохранению и использованию природных ресурсов. Она ставит своей задачей удовлетворить потребности как существующих, так и последующих поколений, посредством разработки программ, которые не наносят вред экологический системе, будучи эффективными и действенными с технологической и экономической точек зрения.


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