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Экология Reforming the Security Council
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Peacemaking

UN peacemaking brings hostile parties to agreement through diplomatic means. The Security Council, in efforts to maintain international peace and security, may recommend ways to avoid conflict or restore or secure peace - through negotiation, for example, or recourse to the International Court of Justice.

The Secretary-General plays an important role in peacemaking. The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which appears to threaten international peace and security; may use "good offices" to carry out mediation; or exercise "quiet diplomacy" behind the scenes, either personally or through special envoys. The Secretary-General also undertakes "preventive diplomacy" aimed at resolving disputes before they escalate. The Secretary-General may also send a fact-finding mission, support regional peacemaking efforts or set up a local UN political office to help build trust between the parties in conflict.

Four countries started joint attack on the UN with an eye to get permanent membership in the Security Council. Orally the majority of the international community have nothing against it. But still there will be no Security Council reform.

Brazil, Germany, India and Japan have united in struggle for getting permanent status in the UN Security Council. All of them have demanded it before, but every time they were said no. This was likely to happen because they acted separately. But now "the group of four" hopes that everything will change. The representatives of these four countries met in New York and issued a joined statement. "UN Security Council should reflect the real state of affairs of the international community in the 21st century" – Japanese and Indian Prime ministersJunichiro Koizumi and Manmohan Singh, German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer and Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva repute. Brazil, Germany, India and Japan pledged themselves to try all ways to support each other' efforts in achieving the stated aim. Besides they claimed the status of permanent membership to be given to one of African countries. Thought they didn't point out a country, simply noting that the Security Council should be "representative, legitimate and efficient". As additional arguments the leaders reminded everybody that India is the most populous country of the world, Japan is the second (after the USA) sponsor of the UN, and Brazil can well enough represent the whole Latin America in the Security Council. Finally Germany's active participation in UN projects, including Afghanistan wasn't forgotten.

One should say that many support Security Council enlargement. For instance this idea has been long popularized by Secretary-General Kofi Annan, who proposes to include developing countries in the Security Council. Theoretically joint efforts of the four countries have chances to succeed. But according to many experts, they are unlikely to win the day. "Of course, it is getting more and more difficult for the ongoing members of the Security Council who no doubt would like to keep the present state of affairs to do it" – one of the UN's insiders say. – The Americans, the British, the French and the Russians can no more recall the Security Council" history of creation and say that Germany and Japan have no right to claim permanent membership, just due to the fact they have once lost the war. Most likely they will have to acknowledge that the Japanese and the Germans have long deserved Security Council membership, and India's absence there is quite an anachronism." But China can well venture to do things, the western powers and Russia can't due to various reasons. China has already displayed it, once again being in opposition to giving Japan permanent membership.

"The Security Council is not a board of directors; its membership is not to be determined against financial contribution of some countries – representative of China's Ministry for Foreign Affairs asserted. He also added that the emphasis was to the placed on developing countries representation. He said nothing of WWII result, but there was no need in that. Anyway, it is clear that China will not at any price let Japan's permanent membership in the Security Council. Thus, as it is judged by many, for the new initiative to fail, four in five permanent members should do nothing at all. It is enough not to hamper China.

CONTENTS

Part I. 1

Introduction. 1

Chapter 1. 4

Preamble to the UN Charter 4

Chapter 2. 7

Origin and founding documents 7

Chapter 3. 11

Purposes and Principles 11

Chapter 4. 15

Membership_ 15

Chapter 5. 17

The Main Organs 17

Chapter 6. 24

Security Council 24

Secretariat 25

Part II. 31

Chapter 1. 31

The Millennium Summit: Charting а new vision for the new era_ 31

Chapter 2. 36

Climate change and biosafety 36

Chapter 3. 43

Peacekeeping_ 43

Chapter 4. 52

Disarmament 52

Chapter 5. 59

Call for reform. Renewing the United Nations 59

Part III. 68

ОБЗОРНЫЕ ПЕРЕВОДЫ_ 68

1. Права человека_ 68

2. Международное право_ 69

3. Экономический и социальный совет_ 70

4. Разоружение 71

5. Миротворчество_ 72

6. Реформа Совета Безопасности ООН_ 73

Part IV.. 75

Further Reading And Speaking. 75

The Politics of UN Membership_ 75

The United Nations 76

The UN Specialised Agencies 87

Courage to fulfil our responsibilities 89

SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION_ 97

Check yourself___________________________________________________________ 98

KEYS. 104

[1] The Trusteeship Council was established to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories and ensure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government or independence. By 1994 all Trust Territories had attained self-government or independence. With the independence of Palau (the last remaining UN's trust Territory) which became the 185th Member State of the UN, the council formally suspended operations on 1 November, 1994. Now it consists only of the five permanent members of the Security Council.

[2] There are two entities with the same acronym: the World Trade Organization and the World Tourism Organization

[3] good offices: when a third party offers a location for discussions among disputants but does not participate in the actual negotiations

[4] mediation: when a third party proposes a nonbinding solution to a controversy between two other states

[5] Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO)

[6] The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) which urged industrialized countries to reduce their emission of greenhouse gases

[7] they are: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride

[8] an emissions trading regime; joint implementation; a clean development mechanism

[9] Observer missions usually consist of unarmed military and civilian personnel who moni­tor the implementation of ceasefire agreements.

[10] Peacekeeping forces are composed of lightly armed forces, and include fully equipped infantry contingents.

[11] Peacemaking involves the use of diplomacy to persuade belligerents to stop fighting and negotiate an end to their dispute

[12] Peace-building involves helping nations to promote peace before, during or after a conflict. Broadly defined it employs a wide range of political, humanitarian and human rights activities and programs.

[13] United Nations Protection Forces (UNPROFOR)

[14] United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs)

[15] small arms are weapons designed for personal use (e.g. revolvers and self-loading pistols, rifles, sub-machine guns, assault rifles

[16] light weapons are designed for use by several persons serving as а crew (e.g. portable anti-air­craft and anti-tank guns, and portable launchers of anti-aircraft missile systems)

[17] The doctrine adhering to the principles that a nuclear-weapon state would not use its strategic weapons in the event of an attack on it with conventional weapons by another state

[18] the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization

[19] As to the year 2001

[20] One of the first substantive efforts by the UN to address the criticism came in 1994 with the establishment of the Office of Internal Oversight Services, charged with making the bureaucracy more effective and efficient.

[21] Kofi Annan took office in 1994

[22] When Kofi Annan took office, he launched what he called his "quiet revolution", to streamline the organization and make it both more efficient and more effective without rising costs. The quiet revolution managed to stop the Secretariat's budget creep for a few years, beginning in 1998 and even reduced a little

[23] Non-Proliferation Treaty

[24] the Convention оn Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxic Weapons

[25] the Seabed Treaty

[26] the Outer Space Treaty

[27] the Mine-ban Convention

[28] Junichiro Koizumi

[29] Manmohan Singh

[30] Joschka Fischer

[31] Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

[32] collective securitya principle endorsed by a group of states who agree that they will jointly punish states that breach international peace

[33] consensus decision makingvoting by voice without a record of individual members’ formal positions, in order to reach agreement without generating criticism from opponents within the members’ domestic system.

[34] failed states countries whose governments have so mismanaged policy that they have lost the loyalty of their citizens whose revolts threaten to disintegrate the state.

[35] Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome


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