Экология THE ROLE OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL просмотров - 94
The Secretariat – an international staff working in duty stations around the world -- carries out the diverse day-to-day work of the Organization. It services the other principal organs of the United Nations and administers the programmes and policies laid down by them. At its head is the Secretary-General, who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five- year, renewable term.
The duties carried out by the Secretariat are as varied as the problems dealt with by the United Nations. These range from administering peacekeeping operations to mediating international disputes, from surveying economic and social trends and problems to preparing studies on human rights and sustainable development. Secretariat staff also inform the world's communications media about the work of the United Nations; organize international conferences on issues of worldwide concern; and interpret speeches and translate documents into the Organization's official languages.
The Secretariat has a staff of about 8,900 under the regular budget drawn from some 170 countries. As international civil servants, staff members and the Secretary-General answer to the United Nations alone for their activities, and take an oath not to seek or receive instructions from any Government or outside authority. Under the Charter, each Member State undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff and to refrain from seeking to influence them improperly in the discharge of their duties.
Equal parts diplomat and advocate, civil servant and CEO, the Secretary-General is a symbol of United Nations ideals and a spokesman for the interests of the world's peoples, in particular the poor and vulnerable among them.
The Charter describes the Secretary-General as "chief administrative officer" of the Organization, who shall act in that capacity and perform "such other functions as are entrusted" to him or her by the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and other United Nations organs. The Charter also empowers the Secretary-General to "bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security". These guidelines both define the powers of the office and grant it considerable scope for action. The Secretary-General would fail if he did not take careful account of the concerns of Member States, but he must also uphold the values and moral authority of the United Nations, and speak and act for peace, even at the risk, from time to time, of challenging or disagreeing with those same Member States.
That creative tension accompanies the Secretary-General through day-to-day work that includes attendance at sessions of United Nations bodies; consultations with world leaders, government officials, and others; and worldwide travel intended to keep him in touch with the peoples of the Organization's Member States and informed about the vast array of issues of international concern that are on the Organization's agenda. Each year, the Secretary-General issues a report on the work of the United Nations that appraises its activities and outlines future priorities. The Secretary-General is also Chairman of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), which brings together the Executive Heads of all UN funds, programmes and specialized agencies twice a year in order to further coordination and cooperation in the entire range of substantive and management issues facing the United Nations System.
An international staff assists the Secretary-General. The highest standards of efficiency and integrity govern recruitment, which is on as wide a geographical basis as possible.
Staff members come from more than 139 countries.
The work of the Secretary-General and the staff is as varied as the list of problems dealt with by the United Nations: good offices, sometimes formal mediation in resolving international disputes, administering peacekeeping operations; surveys of world economic trends and problems; studies in fields such as human rights and natural resources; organizing international conferences; compilation of statistics; gathering information on the extent to which decision of the Security Council or other bodies are being carried out; interpreting speeches, translating documents, and servicing the world’s communications media with information about the UN. In performing their duties, the Secretary-General and his staff must not seek or receive instructions from any government or any other authority external to the United Nations.
Member States of the United Nations have agreed to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the Secretariat and not seek to influence it in carrying out those responsibilities.
2. Give English equivalents for the following Russian expressions
1. разногласия на международном уровне
2. голосовать по вопросам/ совпадающие голоса/воздержаться от голосования
3. мирное урегулирование (спора)
4. формулировать (излагать) условия
5. повседневная работа
6. руководить действиями
7. нести ответственность перед кем-либо за что-либо
8. исполнение обязанностей
9. множество вопросов
10. давать оценку деятельности
3. Give Russian equivalents:
1. to be eligible for immediate reelection
2. to investigate a situation
3. substantive matters
4. affirmative vote
5. questions brought before the Security Council
6. to work in duty stations
7. to mediate international disputes
8. to survey economic and social trends
9. issues of worldwide concern
10. creative tension