Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.

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To From

FAX

Fax no No of pages (including this page)

When a pre-printed form is not available, the fully blocked style may be used in preparing a fax message, as shown in this example:

1. Letter-headed paper.

2. The main heading ‘FAX MESSAGE’.

3. The headings: To

Company

Fax Number

From

Ref

Date

4. The number of pages being sent

5. A salutation (if preferred)

6. The heading stating the main topic of the fax message

7. The body of the fax message being composed similarly to a business letter

8. A complimentary close (if preferred)

E-MAIL

The explosive growth of e-mail has created some problems, mainly because there have never been any strict standards or guide-lines on how to use it. Hundreds of new users sign on every day without being exposed to the informal online culture that has evolved over the years.

Remember while writing an e-mail to:

· Write a SMART (specific, meaningful, appropriate, relevant, thoughtful) subject line after you’ve written your message.

· Include an appropriate greeting and closing section.

· Use modern business language and simple sentences instead of old-fashioned, long-winded writing.

· Never use ALL CAPITALS for any part of your message.

· Learn the importance of structuring your messages logically.

· Write as if you are having a conversation with the recipient.

· Consider the other person’s feelings and make sure you use appropriate tone.

· Format messages attractively, using full words, full sentences, and with a space between each paragraph.

· Use e-mail as a tool to enhance communication – not as a replacement for communication.

· If an e-mail exchange is getting rather long or complicated, it may be more effective to pick up the phone.

The structure of e-mail is the following:

1. The sender’s e-mail address;

2. Date;

3. The recipient’s e-mail address;

4. Subject;

5. Greeting;

6. Introduction;

7. Details;

8. Action;

9. Close;

10. Signature block.

REQUEST

A request usually consists of a request-phrase, reason for request and expression of gratitude. The request should always be courteously made.

Opening phrases ad sentences for making a request:

1. I have a request to make o you about (noun or gerund)…

2. I am making use of this opportunity to approach you with a request to (infinitive).

3. I should like very much to take this opportunity and ask you to (infinitive)…

4. At the request of…

5. Will you be s kind to consider my request.

6. Kindly meet my request.

7. Please comply with my request.

8. I shall be much obliged if you gratify this request.

9. I should like to approach you with my request.

10. I should appreciate it very much if you would give considerable attention to my request.

11. I hope that you will view (consider) our request favourably.

12. I avail myself of the opportunity of asking you the following/ of presenting my request.

13. I should be very grateful to you if you would comply with my request.

14. I wonder if I could ask you to (infinitive)…

Opening phrases and sentences for replying to a request:

1. Replying to a request/ In reply to your request…

2. I am very happy to comply with your request.

3. In accordance with your request…

4. As requested by you…

5. I should certainly find it a great pleasure to comply with your request.

6. In response to your request, I am happy (sorry) to inform you.

7. With regard to your request, I wish to inform you that…

8. I am very glad that you have approached me with your request.

9. I regret very much that I am not in a position to comply with your request as…

10. I feel sorry that I cannot do anything for you as…

11. I should very much like to do my best for you, but, unfortunately, I cannot comply with your request due to…

12. Thank you very much indeed for meeting my request.

13. I am very grateful to you for the trouble you have taken to consider my request.

14. It is so kind of you to comply with my request.

Gratitude, thanks or appreciation should always be expressed to the person or establishment that was (is or will be) so kind as to render help, service or a favour to the person asking for it. These are the most commonly-used patterns for expressing gratitude, thanks or appreciation:

1. I shall (should) be the most grateful if you are (were) (would be) able to…

2. I will (would) be very thankful if you are (were) in a position to…

3. I am very thankful to you for (gerund)…

4. I wish to express my deep gratitude (thanks) to you for…

5. May express my sincere gratitude to you for…

6. Allow me to express my sincere thanks to you for…

7. (I) Thank you so much for…

8. Please accept my sincere thanks (gratitude) for…

9. May I (Allow me to) take this opportunity of thanking (to thank) you for…

10. I should like to take (to make use of) this opportunity of thanking (to hank) you for…

11. I wish particularly to acknowledge my thanks to you for…

12. I will (would) be much obliged if you…

13. I am (shall be) much obliged to you for/ if you…

14. I am (shall be) greatly indebted to you for/ if you…

15. I shall (should) very much appreciate your (gerund)….

16. We would appreciate it very much if you could…

17. I am (shall be) most appreciative for…

18. I wish to express my full appreciation for…

The form and style of expressing gratitude, thanks or appreciation should always be presented in a polite and courteous manner. For this purpose there is a number of accepted courteous phrases which are extensively used in correspondence. Courtesy and kindness phrases and sentences:

1. Through/By the courtesy of…

2. I wonder is you would be so kind (good) as to…

3. Will you be so kind as to…

4. Will you kindly…

5. Kindly…

6. Please…

7. I shall (should) be happy (glad, pleased) if you…

8. We are so happy (glad, pleased) to…

9. We will (would) be most happy (glad, pleased) to…

10. I cannot tell you how happy (glad, pleased) I am to…

11. I have much pleasure in…

12. It gives me great pleasure to…

13. It is (was, would be) a great pleasure (to me) to…

14. It is great honour and pleasure to…

15. Thank you for your courtesy…

16. I am so grateful to you for your kindness.

17. I very much appreciate your kindness (courtesy).

18. I cordially (sincerely) thank you for your kindness.

19. I thank you very much for your kindness.

20. May I take (use) this opportunity of thanking you for all your kindness.

21. I wish to thank you in advance.

Opening phrases and sentences dealing with attention and consideration:

1. I wish to/ May I call your attention to (the fact that)…

2. Please pay attention to…

3. May I ask you for your attention (consideration) to…

4. We request your attention (consideration) to…

5. I would like very much to have your full attention (consideration) to…

6. I would greatly appreciate your attention (consideration) to…

7. You will oblige if you give your attention (consideration) to…

8. Would you be willing to lend your attention (consideration) to…

9. Whatever attention (consideration) you can possibly give to… I shall be grateful to you.

10. I kindly ask you to attend to (consider)…

11. Would it be convenient if I ask you to (consider)…

12. I am very glad of the opportunity to give my attention (consideration) to…

13. I am really happy that I can offer you my attention (consideration).

14. It is very nice of you to approach me for my attention (consideration) to…

15. I very much regret that I am not in a position to give you y attention (consideration) due to…

16. I am awfully sorry I am so busy that I cannot lend you more attention (consideration).

17. May I thank you for your courteous attention (consideration).

18. It was very kind f you to show me so much attention (consideration).

19. I highly appreciate your attention.

20. I am very grateful to you for giving so much attention to…

21. I should like to take this opportunity of thanking you for the attention (consideration) that you have shown me.

22. I should be thankful if you would give your consideration (attention) to…

23. Will you kindly take into consideration my request…

24. Kindly give this matter your consideration (attention) and you will oblige.

25. Please give due attention (consideration) to my request.

26. I should like very much to hear your consideration concerning…

27. I should be most grateful for your consideration of…

28. I very much appreciate your consideration regarding…

29. Please inform us of your considerations concerning…

30. Thank you very much for your consideration.

When the recipient of a letter is not in a position to comply with a request or inquiry, when he has delayed with an answer or is unable to supply information, material, etc., or when he wishes to decline an invitation, proposal or offer, the letter-writer should express his regret, apology or refusal in a most courteous, polite and frank manner.

Some patterns expressing regret:

1. We very much regret to say/ to inform you/ to announce that…

2. I regret very much that I am unable/ I am not able/ I am not in a position to (infinitive)

3. It is with great (deep) regret that…

4. I regret that it has not been possible for me to (infinitive)

5. Please convey my deep regret to…

6. I am sorry to learn/ hear/ know/ inform you/announce/say that…

7. I must (wish to) express my regret for (gerund/noun)…

8. I must inform you with regret that…

9. I am very (awfully) sorry that I am not able/ I am unable/ I am not in a position to…

10. I am so sorry that it has not been possible for me to (infinitive)…

11. You cannot imagine how sorry (disappointed) I am that…

12. I am very sorry to have (that I have) caused you so much trouble.

13. I feel awfully sorry for the trouble (inconveniences) I have occasioned you.

Regret may also be expressed by beginning the sentence with the adverb unfortunately or with the expression to my great regret.

Some patterns expressing apology:

1. We apologize most sincerely for al the trouble (inconveniences) we have occasioned/ caused/ given you.

2. Please accept my apologies for all the trouble (inconveniences) I have occasioned/ caused/ given you.

3. May we convey our apologies to you or (gerund/ noun)…

4. Please convey my apologies to… for…

5. (May) I beg your pardon for…

6. Please excuse me for…

7. Please/ I ask you to forgive me for…

When apologizing for delay in answering letters or sending material, printed matter etc., the following patterns are mostly used:

1. I (must) apologize for the delay (taken) in answering your letter.

2. Please accept my sincere apologies for the delay in dispatching the material.

3. I trust you will suffer no inconvenience due to delay in delivery of the material.

4. May I (I wish to) apologize for not answering you letter.

5. (May) I ask you to excuse me for not answering your letter.

6. I must apologize to you for delaying my answer.

7. Excuse me for the delay with my reply (answer).

8. I have purposely (intentionally) delayed my reply (answer).

Some patterns expressing refusal:

1. I very much regret that I have o decline your…

2. It is with great regret that I have to decline your…

3. I am (awfully) sorry that I have (I am obliged) to decline your…

4. I am very sorry to decline your…

5. I am very sorry (I regret very much) to inform you that I am not able to accept your…

6. I must apologize t you for having to decline your…

7. It is a great pity that I have to refuse from (gerund)…

REQUESTS FOR CATALOGUES AND PRICE LISTS

Suppliers receive many requests for catalogues and price lists. Unless the writer requests information not already included, a written reply is often not necessary, and a ‘with compliments’ slip (a small printed note containing the company’s name, address, contact numbers)’ may be sent instead. Where an enquiry suggests that large or regular orders are possible, a ‘with compliments’ slip is not enough. Instead write a letter and take the opportunity to promote your products. The structure of the letter consists of:

1. Words expressing gratitude.

2. Further information about specific goods.

3. Reference to information in catalogue.

4. Suggestion of actions for recipient to take.

5. Appropriate close.

When writing to a supplier who has been recommended, it may be to your advantage to mention the fact.

A request for a sample of goods provides the supplier with an excellent opportunity to present products to advantage. A reply should be convincing, giving confidence in the products.

LETTERS REQUESTING PAYMENT (COLLECTION LETTERS)

The preliminary steps in debt collection are as follows:

1. A first end-of –month statement of account.

2. A second end-of –month statement of account with added comment.

3. A first letter worded formally.

4. Second and third letters.

5. A final letter notifying that legal action will be taken unless the amount is paid within a stipulated period of time.

A customer whose account is only slightly overdue would understandably be offered to receive a personal letter concerning this. This is why the first 2 reminders usually take the form of end-of –month statements of account. Even where the second of these statements is marked with such comments as ‘Second application’, ‘Account overdue – please pay’ or ‘Immediate attention is requested’, this is unlikely to give offence.

First applications for payment

It is not wise to write a letter until a customer has been given the opportunity to pay on these impersonal statements. Letters requesting payment of overdue accounts are termed ‘collection letters’. They aim to:

· Persuade the customer to settle the account.

· Retain custom and goodwill.

Useful expressions

Openings

1. We notice that your account which was due for payment on… is still outstanding.

2. We wish to draw your attention to our invoice number… for £… which remains unpaid.

3. We must remind you that we have not yet received the balance of our… statement amounting to £…, payment of which is now more than a month overdue.

Closes

1. We hope to receive your cheque by return.

2. We look forward to yur payment within the next few days.

3. As our statement may have gone astray, we enclose a copy and shall be glad if you will pass it for payment immediately.

Second application letters

If a reply to the first application is not received, a second application should be sent after about 10 days. This should be firmer in tone but still polite. Nothing must be said to cause annoyance or ill will. Co-operation is required and this will not be achieved by annoying the customer.

Such letters should be addressed to a senior official under ‘Confidential’ cover and planned as follows:

1. Refer to previous application.

2. Assume that something unusual accounts for the delay in payment.

3. Suggest tactfully that an explanation would be welcome.

4. Ask for payment to be sent.

Useful expressions

Openings

1. We do not appear to have had any reply to our request of… for settlement of £… due on our invoice… dated…

2. We regret not having received a reply to our letter of…

3. We are at a loss to understand why we have received no reply to our letter of… requesting settlement of our… statement in the sum of £…

Closes

1. We trust you will attend to this matter without further delay.

2. We must ask you to settle this account by return.

3. We regret that we must ask for immediate payment of the amount outstanding.

Third application letters

If payment is still not made and if no explanation has been received, a third letter becomes necessary. Such a letter should show that steps will be taken to enforce payment if necessary, such steps depending on individual circumstances. Third letters should follow this plan:

1. Review earlier efforts to collect payment.

2. Give a final opportunity to pay by stating a reasonable deadline date.

3. State that you wish to be fair and reasonable.

4. State action to be taken if this third request is ignored.

5. Regret the necessity for the letter.

Useful expressions

Openings

1. We wrote to you on… and again on… concerning the amount owing on our invoice number…

2. We have had no reply to our previous requests for payment of our… statement…

3. We not with surprise and disappointment state that we have had no replies to our 2 previous applications for payment of your outstanding account.

Closes

1. Unless we receive your cheque in full settlement by… we shall have no option but to instruct our solicitors to recover the amount due.

2. Unless we receive your cheque in full settlement by the end of this month, we shall be compelled to take further steps to enforce payment.

3. We still hope you will settle this account without further delay and thus save yourself the inconvenience and considerable costs of legal actions.

Final collection letters

If all 3 applications are ignored, it is reasonable to assume that the customer either cannot, or will not, settle the account. A brief notification of the action that is to be taken must then be sent as a final warning.

Compare with Russian

Structure:

1. Reference to the documents, where the conditions of agreement are fixed.

2. Request to fulfill the conditions of a contract.

3. Measures to be taken in case of refusal to fulfill the conditions of a contract.

Useful phrases:

1. Напоминаем Вам…

2. Напоминаем, что согласно договору №… от…

3. Ставим Вас в известность…

4. Обращаем Ваше внимание…

5. Считаем необходимым уведомить Вас…

6. Убедительно/настоятельно просим…

7. Требуем от Вас…

8. Мы настаиваем…

9. Предлагаем завершить предусмотренные договором работы до…

10. В противном случае будем вынуждены применить санкции за нарушение условий договора.

INQUIRY

A letter of inquiry approaches a person with a favour to supply certain information or knowledge. It may be a request for advice or opinion. The writer states his wishes, sometimes the purpose of this information and trusts that the recipient will be considerate and reply to his letter.

A well-arranged letter will make the reply much easier for the recipient. Usually, the 1st paragraph presents the subject; the 2nd purpose, i.e. the reason for making the inquiry; the 3rd paragraph the inquiry itself; the 4th paragraph the appreciation.

The 1st paragraph of the reply acknowledges receipt of the letter, the proceeding paragraphs answer each question in the order of its presentation. The final paragraph usually expresses a willingness to be helpful ad expresses hope the sender of the inquiry is satisfied with the information provided.

A letter of inquiry should always be tactful showing an appreciation of the expected information and readiness, if possible, to offer some help or service in return.

In case of refusal, i.e. inability to satisfy the inquiry, the recipient should firstly express appreciation for the inquiry, secondly, give the reason why the inquiry cannot be satisfied, thirdly, suggest some alternative that may be of help and fourthly, refer to some other source, if possible.

Here are some phrases and sentences which are used in making an inquiry:

1. I am writing to inquire if…

2. I wish/ I should like to inquire about…

3. May I inquire why (for what reason, purpose, etc.) you…

4. May I approach you with an inquiry…

5. I wish to make some inquiries about…

6. I trust you will give considerable attention to my inquiry

7. In accordance with your inquiry of (date)…

8. In reply to your inquiry of (date)…

9. We shall inquire into the matter…

10. I must thank you for all the trouble you have taken in regard to my inquiry.

Information in scientific correspondence is usually the communication of knowledge or data which the inquirer wishes to receive. It may also communicate the knowledge of particular facts, events, news, instructions, etc. When the letter-writer asks for information he should show his interest in obtaining it.

Here are some phrases and sentences which are used in connection with information and interest.

Asking or information:

1. I should like certain information about…

2. I require certain information about…

3. We shall appreciate any information you can possibly supply us with.

4. Can you please (Will you kindly/ Would you be so kind as to) provide (furnish, supply) us with information about (on/ concerning/ regarding)…

5. Could you give me the following information?

6. I should be much obliged if you would give me some information concerning…

7. Would you be able to inform us about (of)…

8. I shall be grateful if you inform me of (about)…

9. Please advise me of…

10. We should like to know…

11. Will you please (kindly) let us know…

12. Will you please inform me how to…

Supplying information:

1. Enclosed for your information are…

2. I am happy to supply/ furnish/ provide you with the information you require concerning…

3. I hope you will find this information of use to you…

4. We shall be pleased to send you further information is required.

5. I trust that this is the information you desire (require)…

6. I want to communicate to you information about…

7. I wish/ I am happy to inform you about (of/ that)…

8. We are pleased to be able to inform you…

9. I have the pleasure of informing you…

10. I shall let you know about… (as soon as…)

11. In reply to your letter of… (date) I must inform you that…

Acknowledging receipt of information:

1. According to/ In accordance with the information received from you…

2. Thank you very much on the information on…

3. I appreciate very much information you have forwarded to me.

4. I wish to thank you for (supplying me with) the information…

5. It is very kind of you to inform me…

6. I am grateful to you for letting me know about/ that…

Interest:

1. We are glad to hear of your interest in…

2. I would be most interested in…

3. If you have interest in…

4. Should you be interested in…

5. You may be interested to know that…

6. I wish to thank you for your interest.

7. Many thanks for your keen interest.

When asking for help or advice the sender usually states the purpose and reason and expresses his desire or readiness to return the service, whereas the recipient should always try to do his best to render the help or give some advice, or refer the sender of the letter to some other source. Such letters are written in a frank, courteous and friendly manner. In many cases help and advice are a response to an inquire seeking for information, material, data, etc.

Here are some of the most commonly-used phrases and sentences in connection with help and advice:

Request for help and advice:

1. May I approach you with a request to help me…

2. May I ask/ refer to you for help/ advice…

3. I wonder (I would be happy/ I should be grateful) if you could help me/ advise me…

4. I shall appreciate any (kind of) help (advice) that you can render (offer) me.

5. Would you be so kind as to help me…

6. May I rely on you for help (advice) in case of (if)…

7. I am in great need of your help (advice).

8. I require your help (advice) badly.

9. If there is any way in which you may help I shall appreciate it immensely.

10. I should like very much to make use of your help (advice).

11. Your help (advice) would be most highly appreciated.

12. Could you give me your advice in this matter?

13. Could you lend me your help in this matter?

14. I am looking forward to your help (advice)…

Response:

1. I am happy (I am pleased/ It gives me great pleasure) to be of this small help to you (that I can offer/render you this help).

2. If I can be of any further help please d not hesitate to write to me/ to approach me/ to let me know at once.

3. If you require further information..., I shall be happy to help you…

4. The only help (advice) that I can offer (give) you is…

5. I am glad that I can help (advise) you in this matter.

6. I trust this (I am glad that my) advice is of (great) help to you.

7. If you wish to take my advice concerning.., you should…

8. I very much regret (I am sorry) I am unable to help (advise) you in any way.

9. I am sorry I am unable to offer you my help (advice).

Expressing gratitude for help or advice:

1. (I wish to) thank you very much for your help (advice).

2. I am grateful to you for (appreciate very much) your help (advice).

3. It was so kind of you to offer/ render me your help (advice).

4. Thank you once again for your much appreciated help (advice).

5. I lack words to express my deep gratitude for the kind (fine) help (advice) that you have given me.

6. I am looking forward to the opportunity of returning you the fine help (advice) you have granted me.

7. If I can be of any help in future, I shall be glad to hear from you.

8. I wish to express my appreciation for all your efforts to help me…

Compare with Russian

Structure:

1. Personal data of addresser and addressee

2. The date of a document and number

3. Heading

4. Greeting

5. The aim of the letter

6. The essence of the problem

7. Expression of hope to continue cooperation

8. Thanking

9. Signature (post, Surname, Name and Patronymics, signature)

Лекция 5

INVITATIONS

Official invitation. The form: The (name of institution or person) request(s) the pleasure of (name of person) at (OCCASION) to be held at (address), at (time) on (day, date).R.S.V.P.

Useful phrases:

1. (On behalf of…_ I have the pleasure of extending to you an invitation to…

2. It is a great pleasure to extend to you an invitation to…

3. (May) we (I) have the pleasure of inviting (to invite) you to…

4. May I (we) cordially (sincerely) invite you to…

5. It is a great pleasure (privilege) and honour to invite you to…

6. I trust you will kindly accept this invitation.

7. It would give me very much pleasure if you would accept this invitation.

8. It would be very much appreciated if you could reply to this invitation at your earliest convenience.

The reply to an invitation is usually typed.

Usual form in accepting official invitation: (Name of person) thank(s) the (name of institution or person) for its (their) kind invitation to (occasion) to be held at (address), at (time) on (day, date) which he has much pleasure in accepting (to accept).

Useful phrases:

1. Thank you for your kind (sincere) invitation which I accept with great pleasure.

2. I accept your kind invitation with great pleasure.

3. I am pleased to receive your invitation to…

4. It is a great pleasure and honour to accept your invitation.

5. I have much pleasure in accepting your invitation to…

Usual form in refusing official invitation: (Name of person) thank(s) the (name of institution or person) for its (their) kind invitation to (occasion) to be held at (address), at (time) on (day, date), but regrets he is unable to accept owing to…

Here are some refusal phrases and clauses:

1. Thank you very much for your kind invitation, but I have to decline it owing to…

2. I m very much obliged for your invitation to..., but I very much regret that I am unable o accept it as I have…

3. I am sorry to decline your kind invitation.

4. It is with great regret that I have o decline your invitation.

5. I regret to inform you that I am not in a position to accept your invitation to…

6. I much regret that I am not able to attend the conference owing o another previously arranged engagement.

7. I very much regret to find that I am unable to attend the conference owing to my illness.

8. I regret to inform you that I am not able to accept your invitation owing to my personal circumstances.

9. … owing to (because of) my poor health.

10. … owing to a prior engagement for that day (evening, time, period).

11. … as I have an urgent business appointment to attend to.

12. …as I have already accepted an invitation earlier.

Informal invitations and replies to them are written as a usual letter.

Letters of visits andletters of hospitalitymay include the following phrases:

1. I wish to invite you to visit this country.

2. Please inform us of the date of my visit.

3. I intend to make a tour of your country.

4. Thank you for your interest in visiting our laboratory.

5. I hope you enjoyed your stay in this country.

6. Thank you for the excellent hospitality you have afforded (extended to) us.

7. I hope you enjoyed our hospitality.

In letters of appointmentsand letters of introduction the following phrases are used:

1. I wish to ask you for an appointment for (time, date).

2. May I ask you to arrange an appointment for me with Dr…

3. I would be very grateful if you would be willing to receive me at (time, date).

4. I would be grateful if you would be willing to postpone our appointment for another time and date.

5. I am awfully sorry to inform you that I have to cancel our appointment.

6. The purpose of this letter is to introduce to you…

7. Please consider this letter as a request to you.

8. I am writing his letter to introduce Dr… to you.

Phrases for letters concerning arrangement of congress:

1. We have decided to convene a Congress…

2. We are setting up an Organizing Committee for…

3. We would be glad of your co-operation in choosing the themes of the Congress.

4. Please inform us what themes you propose.

5. I would like to submit the following proposals regarding…

6. We hope that our proposals will meet with your approval.

7. We are looking forward to your participation in the Congress.

8. We kindly ask you to agree to co-operate with us on the Committee…

9. I am very happy to become acquainted with the contents of the programme.

10. We would like to welcome your report.

11. We propose the following arrangement of presentation of papers.

12. The length f the paper should not exceed… words.

13. Each reporter will be allotted… minutes for his presentation.

14. We kindly ask you to prepare a paper on…

15. We would appreciate your assistance in organizing…

16. I am very grateful to you for you kind invitation to cooperate with us on the Organizing Committee.

QUOTATIONS

A quotation is a promise to supply goods on the terms stated. The prospective buyer is under no obligation to buy the goods for which a quotation is requested, and suppliers will not normally risk their reputations by quoting for goods they cannot or do not intend to supply. A satisfactory quotation will include the following:

1. An expression of thanks for the enquiry.

2. Details of prices, discounts and terms of payment.

3. A clear indication of what the prices cover, e.g. packing, carriage, insurance.

4. An undertaking regarding the date of delivery.

5. The period for which the quotation is valid.

6. An expression of hope that the quotation will be accepted.

ESTIMATES AND SPECIFICATIONS

Whereas a quotation is an offer to sell goods at a price and under stated conditions, an estimate is an offer to do certain work for a stated price, usually on the basis of a specification. Like a quotation, an estimate is not legally binding so the person making it is not bound to accept any order that may be placed against it.

The contractor can calculate costs from the information provided, and will send an estimate with a covering letter. The letter should provide the following information:

· A reference regarding satisfactory work carried out elsewhere which will give the customer confidence.

· A promised completion date.

· A market prices and wages adjustment clause to protect the contractor from unforeseen increases that may raise costs and reduce profits.

· A hope that the estimate will be accepted.

Compare with Russian

Шифр номера нормативов и коды ресурсов Наименование работ и затрат Ед. Изм. Кол-во ед. Цена на ед. изм. Всего в базисном уровне цен Коэффициенты пересчета Всего в текущем уровне цен
                 

TENDERS

A tender is usually made in response to a published advertisement. It is an offer for the supply of specified goods or the performance of specified work at prices and under conditions set out in the tender. A tender becomes legally binding only when it is accepted; up to that time it may be withdrawn. It is usual for tenders to be made on the advertiser’s own forms which include a specification where necessary and set out the terms in full detail.

An invitation to tender restricted to members of a particular organization or group is called a ‘closed tender’.

ORDERS

Most companies have official printed order forms. The advantages are:

· Such forms are pre-numbered and therefore reference is easy.

· Printed headings ensure that no information will be omitted.

Printed on the back of some forms are general conditions under which orders are placed. It is usual to refer on the front to these conditions, otherwise the supplier is not legally bound by them.

Smaller companies may not have printed forms but instead place orders in the form of a letter. When sending an order by letter, always ensure accuracy and clarity by including:

· An accurate and full description of goods required.

· Catalogue numbers.

· Quantities.

· Prices.

· Delivery requirements (place, date, mode of transport, whether the order will be carriage paid or carriage forward (transportation costs paid by the buyer), etc).

· Terms of payment agreed in preliminary negotiations.

Useful expressions for placing orders:

Openings

1. Thank you for your quotation of…

2. We have received your quotation of… and enclose our official order form.

3. Please supply the following items as quickly as possible and charge to our account: …

Closes

1. Prompt delivery would be appreciated as the goods are needed urgently.

2. Please acknowledge receipt of this order and confirm that you will be able to deliver by…

3. We hope to receive your advice of delivery by return of post.

Acknowledging orders:

Openings

1. Thank you for your order dated…

2. We thank you for your order number… and will dispatch the goods by…

3. We are sorry to inform you that the goods ordered on… cannot be supplied.

Closes

1. We hope the goods reach you safely and that you will be pleased with them.

2. We hope you will find the goods satisfactory and look forward to receiving your further orders.

3. We are pleased to say that these goods have been dispatched today (will be dispatched in…/ are not awaiting collection at…)

Compare with Russian

Structure and useful phrases:

1. Дата и приема заказа…

2. Дата и время начала работ…

3. Дата и время окончания работ…

Код Наименование работ Кол-во Норма времени Стоимость Сумма
           

4. С объемом работ и первоначальной стоимостью согласен…

5. С Правилами предоставления услуг ознакомлен…

6. Все претензии, касающиеся… Заказчик обязан предъявить Исполнителю непосредственно при…

7. В противном случае Заказчик теряет право впоследствии ссылаться на наличие каких-либо недостатков (дефектов) в выполненной Исполнителœем работе (оказанных услугах), предоставленных Исполнителœем…

8. При обнаружении Заказчиком недостатков в выполненной работе, они устраняются Исполнителœем в течение … рабочих дней с момента получения соответствующего требования Заказчика.

9. В том случае, если устранение обнаруженных Заказчиком недостатков требует заказа необходимых комплектующих у организации-производителя (поставщика), срок устранения выявленных недостатков увеличивается соразмерно времени, крайне важного для получения Исполнителœем заказанных комплектующих.

10. Гарантийный срок на… - … месяцев, при условии их установки у Исполнителя и правильной эксплуатации.

11. Исполнитель несет гарантийные обязательства при условии соблюдения потребителœем правил эксплуатации и рекомендаций исполнителя по использованию результатов работы (услуги).

12. Рекомендации по дальнейшей эксплуатации…

13. Порядок оплаты: наличный/ безналичный расчет

14. Заказ-наряд оформил…

15. Объем и качество выполненных работ проверил…

16. Претензий по комплектности не имею. С рекомендациями по использованию результатов работ ознакомлен. С окончательной суммой оплаты работ и стоимостью … согласен.

INVOICES AND ADJUSTMENTS

When goods are supplied on credit the supplier sends an invoice to the buyer to:

· Inform the buyer of the amount due.

· Enable the buyer to check the goods delivered.

· Enable entry in the buyer’s purchases day book.

‘Pro forma’ means ‘for form’s sake’. A pro forma invoice is used:

· To cover goods sent ‘on approval’ or ‘on consignment’.

· To serve as a formal quotation.

· To serve as a request for payment in advance for goods ordered by an unknown customer or a doubtful payer.

· Where the value of goods exported is required or customs purposes.

Pro forma invoices are not entered in the books of account and are not charged to the account of the persons to whom they are sent.

It is not normally necessary to send a covering letter with an invoice particularly when the invoice is sent with the goods. If the invoice is sent separately a short but polite covering letter may be sent with it.

DEBIT AND CREDIT NOTES

If the supplier has undercharged the buyer a debit note may be sent for the amount of the undercharge. A debit note is in the nature of a supplementary invoice.

If the supplier has overcharged the buyer then a credit note is sent. Credit notes are also issued to buyers when they return either goods (as where they are unsuitable) or packing materials on which there is a rebate (a refund/allowance). Credit notes are usually printed in red to distinguish them from invoices and debit notes.

Debit/ credit note includes:

1. Company’s name, address, telephone number.

2. DEBIT/ CREDIT NOTE (in the middle).

3. Buyer’s company name, address, contacts in the left-hand corner.

4. Date and debit note number in the right-hand corner.

5. A table consisting of 3 columns: date, details, price.

STATEMENTS OF ACCOUNT

A statement is a demand for payment. It is a summary of the transactions between buyer and supplier during the period it covers, usually 1 month. It starts with the balance owing at the beginning of the period, if any. Thereafter amounts of invoices and debit notes issued are listed, and amounts of any credit notes issued and payments made by the buyer are deducted. The closing balance shows the amount owing at the date of the statement.

Statements like invoices, are generally sent without a covering letter. If a covering letter is sent, it need only be very short and formal. The structure of the statement is the following:

1. Company A’s name, address and contacts.

2. STATEMENT (in the middle).

3. Company B’s name, address in the left-hand corner.

4. Date in the right-hand corner.

5. A table consisting of 5 columns entitled: date, details, debit, credit, balance.

Лекция 6

COMPLAINTS AND ADJUSTMENTS

No matter how good our intentions and efforts, there are bound to be occasions when it is necessary to deal with a complaint, or even to make one. Complaints may be necessary for several reasons, such as:

· Wrong goods received.

· Poor service.

· Unsatisfactory quality of goods.

· Late delivery.

· Damaged goods.

· Prices not as agreed.

When you have a genuine complaint you will feel angry, but you must show restraint in your letter, if only because the supplier may not be to blame. The following points need to be remembered:

· Do not delay as this will weaken your position, and the supplier may have difficulty investigating the case.

· Do not assume that the supplier is automatically to blame. They may have a perfectly good defence.

· Avoid rudeness. This would create ill-feeling and cause the supplier to be unwilling to resolve matters.

· In your letter: 1) describe the item or service you bought; 2) say where and when you bought the item (or when the service was carried out) and how much it cost; 3) explain what is wrong, any action you have already taken, to whom you spoke and what happened; 4) explain what you expect to be done to rectify the situation, for example a refund or repair, or the job done again without charge.

· Use recorded/ special delivery so that you have a check that your letter has been received.

Compare with Russian

Structure:

1. Explanation of the problem (date, sum, order number etc.)

2. Reasons to complaint, comparison promised and real responsibilities.

3. Expression of feelings and suggestion of possible causes of the problem

4. Description of your actions to solve the problem.

5. Demand of compensation, explanation.

6. Measures to be taken in case of failure to correct the mistake.

7. Closure

8. Signature, name, post

Useful phrases:

1. В результате противоправных действий сотрудников/а… убытки составили сумму… из расчета…

2. Мне причинœен и моральный вред, который я оцениваю в сумме …

3. В соответствии со ст. … прошу признать действия … неправомерными; взыскать в мою пользу ущерб в сумме… и в счет возмещения морального вреда…

4. Приложения: имеющиеся документы в подтверждение жалобы; 2 копии жалобы.

THE ENVELOPE

The address on the envelope should be written in full in order to ensure correct delivery. The whole address of the recipient should begin from the middle of the envelope.

The layout of the envelope:

1. Letters addressed to institutions, organizations or firms:

· 1st line – name of the institution, organization or firm;

· 2nd line – house number and name of the street;

· 3rd line – name of the city, postal district;

· 4th line – name of the country (usually underlined).

2. Letters addressed to official persons:

· 1st line – name of the person;

· 2nd line – title or position;

· 3rd line – name of organization or institution;

· 4th line – house number and name of the street;

· 5th line – name of the city, postal district;

· 6th line – name of the country (underlined)

3. Letters addressed to private persons at their homes:

· 1st line – name of the person;

· 2nd line – house number, name of the street and apartment number preceded by a comma.

· 3rd line – name of the city, postal district;

· 4th line – name of the country (underlined).

The sender’s (return) address is written in the upper or lower left-hand corner of the envelope or sometimes on the flap of the envelope (if it is a private letter).

In Great Britain each line is usually stepped and set off commas. In the United States the lines are blocked and without commas.

Attention line may also be found on the envelope of the letter, 2 lines below the address. The attention line should be underlined.

If a letter is sent to a person whose house address is unknown or who is traveling in some other county, but who is connected with some institution, organization or firm, the address on the envelope should be typed in such a manner:

Dr. A.S.Housegay

c/o London University (*c/o – care of)

London

Great Britain

Postal remarks Registered, Air Mail, Via Air Mail, etc. are typed 2 or 3 spaces above the recipient’s address a little to the left.