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Дом The functions of the gerund in the sentence
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The gerund and the infinitive

With a number of verbs and word-groups both the gerund and the infinitive may be used. The most important of them are: to be afraid, to begin, to cease, to continue, can (cannot) afford, to dread, to fear, to forget, to hate, to intend, to like (dislike), to neglect, to prefer, to propose, to remember, to recollect, to start, to stop.

The young man began turning over the pages of a book. (Priestley)

At length she began to speak softly. (Eliot)

She continued standing near the piano. (Eliot)

She continued to look at him ... (Dickens)

It is sometimes possible to find a reason for the use of a given form. With some verbs and word-groups, such as to be afraid, to forget, to hate, to like (dislike), to prefer the infinitive is mostly used with reference to a special occasion, the gerund being more appropriate to a general statement.

The child was not afraid of remaining alone, but he was afraid to remain alone on such a stormy night. Ребенок (вообще) не боялся оставаться один, но он боялся остаться один в такую бурную ночь.

I was always afraid of losing his goodwill. (Llewellyn) Я всœегда боялся потерять его расположение.

Gwendolen answered rather pettishly, and her mamma was afraid to say more. (Eliot) Гвендолен ответила несколько раздраженно, и ее мать побоялась продолжать разговор.

Don't forget shutting the windows when you leave home. He забывайте закрывать окна, уходя из дому.

Don't forget to shut the window when you leave home, it is very windy today. He забудьте закрыть окно, когда будете уходить из дому; се­годня очень ветрено.

I don't like interrupting people. Я не люблю отрывать людей от дела.

I don't like to interrupt him, he seems very busy. Мне не хочется мешать ему, он, кажется, очень занят.

With the verb to remember the infinitive usually refers to the future, and the gerund to the past.

I remember seeing the book in many bookshops. Я помню, что видел эту книгу во многих магазинах.

Remember to buy the book. He забудьте купить эгу книгу.

With the verb to stop the infinitive and the gerund have dif­ferent syntactical functions.

The gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

They stopped talking when he came in. (Galsworthy) Когда он вошел, они перестали говорить.

The infinitive has the function of an adverbial modifier of pur­pose.

She stopped to exchange a few words with a neighbour. (Dickens) Она остановилась, чтобы поболтать с сосœедкой.

The gerund may be used in various syntactic functions. A single gerund occurs but seldom; in most cases we find a gerundial phrase or a gerundial construction.

1. The gerund as a subject.

Talking mends no holes, (proverb) Разговоры не помогают в беде.

Waiting for the Professor was a lame excuse for doing nothing. (Heym) To, что мы ждали профессора, было слабым оправданием тому, что мы ничего не делали.

My answering in the affirmative gave him great satisfaction. (Dickens) To, что я ответил утвердительно, было ему очень приятно.

The gerund used as a subject may follow the predicate; in these cases the sentence opens with the introductory it (which serves as an introductory subject) or with the construction there is.

It's no use talking like that to me. (Shaw) Бесполезно говорить со мной в таком тоне.

There was no mistaking the expression on her face. (Collins) Выражения ее лица нельзя было не понять.

Note - There is another view according to which it is the subject and the rest of the sentence is the predicate.

2. The gerund as a predicative.

The only remedy ior such a headache as mine is going to bed. (Collins) Единственное средство от такой головной боли, как у меня, — это лечь спать.

3. The gerund as part of a compound verbal predicate.

(a) With verbs and verbal phrases denoting modality the gerund forms part of a compound verbal modal predicate.

We intend going to Switzerland, and- climbing Mount Blanc. (Ch. Bronte) Мы хотим поехать в Швейцарию и подняться на Монблан.

Joseph could not help admiring the man. (Heyrn) Джозеф не мог не восхищаться этим человеком.

(b) With verbs denoting the beginning, the duration, or the end of an action, the gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

She began sobbing and weeping. (Dickens)

In the night it started raining. (Hemingway)

Bathsheba continued walking. (Hardy)

Tom went on whitewashing. (Twain)

She took my hand and kept on laughing. (Hemingway)

Isabella ceased speaking. (E. Bronte)

4. The gerund as an object.

The gerund may be used as a direct object and as a preposi­tional indirect object.

I simply love riding. (Galsworthy) (direct object) Я просто обожаю кататься верхом.

She enjoyed singing and playing to him. (London) (direct object) Ей доставляло удовольствие петь и играть для него.

The times were good for building ... (Galsworthy) (prepositional indirect object) Время для постройки дома было самое подходящее.

Charlie did not succeed in taking things easily. (Priestley) (prepositional indirect object) Чарли не удавалось смотреть легко на вещи.

Predicative constructions with the gerund form a complex object as they consist of two distinct elements, nominal and verbal.

Perhaps you wouldn't mind Richard's coining in? (Dickens) (complex object) Может быть, вы не будете возражать против того, чтобы вошел Ричард?

Aunt Augusta won't quite approve of your being here. (Wilde) (prepositional complex object) Тетя Августа будет не очень довольна тем, что вы здесь.

5. The gerund as an attribute.

In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition.

Swithin protruded his pale round eyes with the effort of hearing. (Galsworthy) Суизин широко открыл свои бесцветные круглые глаза, ста­раясь услышать разговор.

Не was born with the gift of winning hearts. (Gaskell) Он родился с даром покорять сердца.

She had a feeling of having been worsted ... (Galsworthy) У нее было чувство, что над ней одержали верх ...

... there's no chance of their getting married for years. (Gals­worthy) ... нет никакой надежды на то, что они смогут скоро пожениться.

Presently there was the sound of the car being brought to the door. (Du Maurier) Вскоре послышался шум автомобиля, который подъезжал к двери.

6. The gerund as an adverbial modifier.

In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time, man­ner, attendant circumstances, cause, condition, purpose and con­cession; the most common functions are those of adverbial modi­fiers of time, manner, and attendant circumstances.

(a) As an adverbial modifier of time the gerund is preceded by the prepositions after, before, on (upon), in or at.

After leaving her umbrella in the hall, she entered the living room. (Cfonin) Оставив зонтик в передней, она вошла в гостиную.

Не was to have three days at home before going back to farm. (Galsworthy) Он должен был пробыть три дня дома, прежде чем возвратиться на ферму.

On reaching Casterbridge he left the horse and trap at an inn. (Hardy) Приехав в Кастербридж, он оставил лошадь и экипаж в гости­нице.

Mr. Bumble's conduct on being left to himself was rather inex­plicable. (Dickens) Поведение мистера Бамбля, когда он остался один, было не совсœем понятно.

Upon waking I found myself much recovered. (Swift) Когда я проснулся (проснувшись), я почувствовал себя значи­тельно лучше.

In quitting the room he paused once more at my desk. (Ch. Bronte) Выходя из комнаты, он еще раз остановился у моего письмен­ного стола.

Clare turned at hearing her footsteps... (Hardy) Услышав ее шаги, Клэр оглянулся.

Note— In the function of an adverbial modifier of time the gerund sometimes competes with the participle.

George, on hearing the story, grinned. (Galsworthy) Джордж, услышав эту историю, усмехнулся.

The four girls, hearing him speak in the hall, rushed out of the library. (Eliot) Все четыре девочки, услышав, что он говорит в передней, вы­бежали из библиотеки.

After reaching the second landing ... I heard a sound of quiet and regular breathing on my left-hand side. (Collins) Дойдя до второй площадки лестницы, ... я услышал с левой стороны спокойное и ровное дыхание.

Reaching the door of the room occupied by Cowperwood and Aileen, she tapped lightly. (Dreiser) Дойдя до двери комнаты, которую занимали Каупервуд и Эйлин, она тихонько постучала.

(b) As an adverbial modifier of manner the gerund is used with the prepositions by or in.

She startled her father by bursting Into tears. (Qaskell) Она напугала своего отца тем, что расплакалась.

The day was spent in packing. (Du Maurler) День прошел за упаковкой вещей.

(c) As an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances the gerund is preceded by the preposition without.

She was not brilliant, not active, but rather peaceful and statuesque without knowing It. (Dreiser) Это была женщина не блестящая, не энергичная, но она была очень спокойна и величественна, сама того не зная.

(d) As an adverbial modifier of purpose, the gerund is chiefly used with the preposition for.

... one side of the gallery was used for dancing. (Eliot) ... одна сторона галереи использовалась для танцев.

(e) As an adverbial modifier of condition the gerund is pre­ ceded by the preposition without.

He has no right to come bothering you and papa without being Invited. (Shaw) Он не имеет права приходить и беспокоить вас и отца, если его не приглашают.

(f) As an adverbial modifier of cause the gerund is used with the prepositions for, for fear of, owing to.

I feel the better myself for having spent a good deal of my time abroad. (Eliot) Я чувствую себя лучше оттого, что долго прожил за границей.

I dared not attend the funeral for fear of making a fool of myself. (Coppard) Я не смел присутствовать на похоронах, так как боялся поста­вить себя в глупое положение.

(g) As an adverbial modifier of concession the gerund is pre­ceded by the preposition in spite of.

In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help her.

The above-examples show that the gerund preceded by one and the same preposition may be used in different functions: with the preposition without, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances and of condition; with the pre­position in, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of time and of manner; with the preposition for, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose or of cause.

Note — The Russian не + деепричастие may correspond to the English with-out + Gerund or not +Participle. It usually corresponds to rictf + Par-ticiple if it is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of cause.

He зная адреса мисс Бетси, Давид не мог ей написать. Not knowing Miss Betsey's address, David could not write to her. (cause)

If не+деепричастие is used in the function of adverbial modifiers of attendant circumstances and of condition, it generally corresponds to without+Gerund.

Давид уехал из Лондона, никому ничего не сказав. David left London without telling anybody about it. (attendant circumstances)

Мальчики не могли уходить из Салсм-Хауса, не спросив раз­решения. The boys could not leave Salem House without asking for per­mission. (condition)


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    The gerund and the infinitive With a number of verbs and word-groups both the gerund and the infinitive may be used. The most important of them are: to be afraid, to begin, to cease, to continue, can (cannot) afford, to dread, to fear, to forget, to hate, to intend, to like (dislike), to neglect, to prefer, to propose, to remember, to recollect, to start, to stop. The young man began turning over the pages of a book. (Priestley) At length she began to speak softly. (Eliot) She... [читать подробенее]