Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.


Дом Exercise 1. Answer the questions.
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Exercise 2. Have a look at the adverbs in bolt. Find them in the UNIT and guess their meaning. Read the quotations and translate them.

Exercise 1. Find the Russian equivalent.

1. to indulge in

2. to prefer

3. to introduce

4. to expect

5. to proffer

6. to squeeze

7. to exchange

8. to gain

A. расценивать

B. выражать

C. предлагать

D. приобретать

E. кричать

F. следовать

G. избегать

H. пристально смотреть

9. to repeat

10. to confuse

11. to maintain

12. to shy away

13. to emphasise

14. to avoid

15. to ‘eye-ball’

16. to shout

I.рассматривать, обсуждать

J. повторять

K. сжимать

L. делать акцент

M. иметь ввиду

N. предпочитать

O. требовать

P. лизать

17. to mean

18. to raise

19. to express

20. to strive

21. to consider

22. to transform

23. to require

24. to behave

25. to cause

26. to include

27. to stretch

28. to lick

29. to follow

30. to regard

Q. поддерживать

2 Путать

3 служить причиной

4 позволять себе

5 обмениваться

6 вести себя

7 сторониться

8 видоизменять

9 представлять кого-либо

10 включать в себя

11 ожидать что-либо

12 повышать

13 потягиваться

14 прилагать усилия

“Govern a family as you would cook a small fish -- very gently.”

Chinese Proverb

2.“Children need love, especially when they don't deserve it.” Harold Hulbert

3.“I praise loudly, I blame softly. “ Catherine II of Russia

4.“Even an attorney of moderate talent can postpone doomsday year after year, for the system of appeals that pervades American jurisprudence amounts to a legalistic wheel of fortune, a game of chance, somewhat fixed in the favor of the criminal, that the participants play interminablyTruman Capote

5.“Clarity of mind means clarity of passion, too; this is why a great and clear mind loves ardently and sees distinctly what it loves.” Blaise Pascal

6.“I believe that all of us ought to retire relatively young.” Fidel Castro

7.“If you would like to marry suitably, marry your equal.” Ovid

8.“Literature always anticipates life. It does not copy it, but moulds it to its purpose. The nineteenth century, as we know it, is largely an invention of Balzac. “ Oscar Wilde

9.“Unless man is committed to the belief that all mankind are his brothers, then he labors in vain and hypocritically in the vineyards of equality.” Adam Clayton Powell Jr.

10.“No man can be ideally successful until he has found his place. Like a locomotive he is strong on the track, but weak anywhere else. “ Orison Swett Marden

Exercise 3. Match the word with its definition I. Who are these people?

1. stranger A. an adult female person

2. host B. someone you spend a lot of time with, especially a friend

3. guest C. a man who is always polite, has good manners, and treats other people well

4. foreigner D. someone who is taking part in an activity or event

5. gentleman E. someone at a party, meal etc who has invited the other people and who provides the food, drink etc

6. woman F. someone who comes from a different country

7. interlocutor G. someone that you do not know

8. companion H. someone who is invited to an event or special occasion

9. participant I. A person you are speaking to

II. What is the activity?

1. meeting A. a noisy expression of happiness and positive feelings

2. procedure B. a talk in which people exchange news, feelings, and thoughts

3. greeting C. a way of doing something, especially the correct or usual way

4. backslapping D. the things that a person or animal doesCOLLOCATIONS

5. hugging an action when one. E. an event at which people meet to discuss and decide things

6. conversation F. the act of disturbing or irritating smb. especially by repeated acts

7. annoyance the G. to presses smth. tightly, especially in the arms

8. behaviour H. an expression of good wishes

a. What do these adjectives mean?

1. subsequent A. true or suitable in every situation

2. sincere B. smth. that is done in a careful and controlled way

3. invasive C. using words in a clever and amusing way

4. old-fashioned D. free of dissimulation

5. unacceptable E. saying how something should or must be done, or what should be done

6. moderate F. happening or coming after something else

7. measured G. very unusual or strange

8. witty H. tending to infringe

9. inappropriate I. very long and boring

10. decent J. reasonable, practical, rather than fashionable

11. interminable K. not acceptable : not pleasing or welcome

12. universal L. staying within reasonable or sensible limits, not very large or very small, very hot or very cold, very fast or very slow

13. sensible M. of a good enough standard or quality

14. prescriptive N. not suitable or right for a particular purpose or in a particular situation

15. bizarre O. not considered to be modern or fashionable any more

Exercise 4. The dos and don'ts of visiting England. Say whether these statements are true or false and explain why.

1. Always introduce yourself, never wait for someone else to introduce you.

2. A gentleman should never wait for a woman to proffer her hand first.

3. The continental habit of exchanging kisses is very popular and recommended for visitors.

4. Try to avoid gestures such as backslapping and hugging.

5. When you hear “How do you do?” you should immediately answer “Very well!”

6. Use “How do you do?” when you are introduced to someone for the first time.

7. Stay very close to your interlocutors, otherwise they will be discouraged.

8. Stop talking if you notice that your partner has his hands in his pockets.

9. Maintain eye contact to emphasise important points of your speech.

10. Talk very loudly.

11. Avoid any temptation to ‘eye-ball’.

12. Gesticulate wildly while talking.

13. You should not strive to be interminably witty yourself.

14. The most important rule of dining etiquette is to behave in such a way to cause as more annoyance as possible.

15. Try to eat and drink faster than the rest of the group.

16. Do not speak with your mouth full.

17. Always lick your knife after cutting the meat.

18. If you are a guest, follow the host’s instructions.


The total land area of Canada - more than 9 mln sq. km - makes it the second largest country in the world. Canada is bordered by three oceans, it spans six time zones.

Canada's topography is dominated by the Canadian Shield, an ice-scoured area covering half the country. Most of northern Canada has subarctic or arctic climates, with long cold winters lasting 8 to 11 month, short sunny summers, and little precipitation. In contrast, the populated south has a variety of climatological landscapes.

The total population according to the 2001 census was about 30,750,100 people with an average population density of 3.1 per sq. km. Even though Canada is less densely populated than most countries, it has major cosmopolitan centers such as Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, along with numerous mid-sized cities, small towns, and rural areas. Almost all of Canada's population is concentrated in a narrow band along the country’s southern edge. The population is also concentrated by province: Ontario and Quebec contain between them 62% of the total population.

English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal static, rights and privileges as to their use in all governmental institutions.

As a country of immigrants, Canada has a special appreciation for cultural diversity. The country's earliest inhabitants were the Aboriginal Peoples, also known as First Nations. Many historians believe that these first settlers probably came to what is now Canada from Asia thousands of years ago. Aboriginal Peoples still make up two to three percent of the Canadian population.

The main period of European settlement began in the early 1600s with the French, who established settlements on the east coast and in the St. Lawrence River valley. British explorers and settlers soon followed, and there was considerable competition and conflict between the two groups over trade (mainly in furs) and territory. This conflict eventually led to the battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759, in which the British army defeated the French. As a result, all of the Canadian colonies came under British control. In the 1780s, following the U.S. Declaration of Independence, large numbers of "Loyalists" (people of British origin who were loyal to the British Crown) left the United States and moved to the Canadian colonies. Most settled in areas now part of Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

Another large wave of European settlement occurred in the late 1800s and early 1900s, when the Canadian authorities encouraged people from all over Europe to come to Canada and settle in the areas west of Manitoba.

On July 1st, 1867, four colonies joined together to become a federation of provinces called the Dominion of Canada. This event, known as Confederation, was the foundation of Canada as we know it today. July 1st is a national holiday (Canada Day) in recognition of the event.

The federal Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is asked to form the government.

Because the four founding colonies were British, the legislation that joined them together and set out the framework for Canadian government was also British. This meant that the British parliament still had ultimate legal control over how Canada was run. This situation ended in 1982 when the Canadian and British parliaments jointly passed legislation establishing Canada's full legal independence. At the moment Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 northern territories.

Canada is a world leader in the production of asbestos, nickel and other elements, forestry products, and ranks first in the world in export of minerals. Although no longer the foremost sector of the economy, agriculture is of major importance to the economy as a whole. Canada is among the world's leading wheat producers and is second in the export of wheat.


1. What’s the territory of Canada?

2. Is Canada the largest country in the world?

3. What can you say about the climate of Canada?

4. How many people live in Canada?

5. Are there any big cities in Canada?

6. Does Canada have one official language?

7. Who were the country's earliest inhabitants?

8. Where did the first Canadian settlers come from?

9. Who started the main period of European settlement?

10. Who won the battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759?

11. Who are the "Loyalists"?

12. When did the second large wave of European settlement occur?

13. What is the date of the foundation of Canada?