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Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.

Биотехнологии Introduction
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Second half of left century was characterised by rapid development of technics, national economy industrialisation, an intensification of manufacture of foodstuff for provision with a food of continuously increasing population of a planet. In 2000 the globe population made 7 billion against 5 billion in 1986. Such demographic situation negatively influences on ecology.

In connection with growth of cities and industry development there were serious environmental problems: pollution of reservoirs, accumulation of poisonous substances, including cancerogenic, household garbage and waste, air pollution. However many of the low-molecular compounds created by the human being (weed and pest-killer chemicals, detergent agents) and high-molecular polymers were found steady and do not decay by microorganisms, that is required the development of more advanced technologies. With development and intensification of industrial and agricultural activity in the XX-th century limits of natural efficiency of biosphere began to realised, - natural resources, energy sources are petered, deficiency of food, pure water and air is more and more felt. Environmental contamination in many regions has reached the critical limit. All these problems were generated by scientific and technical progress of a society and should solved also with the use of advanced achievements. The ecology problem cannot be solved in scales of one country or group of the countries. The harmful anthropogenous pollution maked in industrially developed regions and countries, as a result of natural circulation of water and air weights extend on all territory of the Earth, up to both poles, get into depths of oceans, reach stratospheres. Many of the chemical substances created by the human being show biological activity: possess mutagen, cancerogenic, teratogenic properties, break structure of the cells. In table 1 presented a number of the substances possessing dangerous effect to the person.

Environmental pollution broadly refers to the presence of undesirable substances in the environment which are harmful to man and other organisms. There has been a significant increase in the levels of harmful environmental pollution mostly due to direct or indirect human activities in recent past. The major sources of environmental pollution are industries, agricultural and other anthropogenic and biogenic sources etc. The pollutants are chemical, biological and physical in nature. Controlling the environmental pollution and the conservation of environment and biodiversity and controlling environmental pollution are the major focus areas of all the countries around the world. In this context, the importance and impact of biotechnological approaches and the implications of biotechnology has to be thoroughly evaluated. There have been serious concerns regarding the use of biotechnological products and the impact assessment of these products due to their interaction with the environmental factors.

The environmental impact assessment system requires proponents to foresee possible environmental impacts when a development project is being planned, and to conduct an environmental assessment. However, debate continues on exactly what kinds of environmental protection measures are needed and how they should be integrated into a given project to achieve desirable environmental results. Actions to deal with global warming and to prevent ozone layer depletion are gaining momentum, but currently available technologies may not be enough to meet the required targets. Technological advances are needed in order to make progress in solving these issues, as well as with the problem of dioxins. New developments are also needed in technologies for pollution removal and environmental restoration, in cases where environmental pollution has already been generated or is already accumulating in the environment.

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