Биотехнологии Introduction просмотров - 164
Second half of left century was characterised by rapid development of technics, national economy industrialisation, an intensification of manufacture of foodstuff for provision with a food of continuously increasing population of a planet. In 2000 the globe population made 7 billion against 5 billion in 1986. Such demographic situation negatively influences on ecology.
In connection with growth of cities and industry development there were serious environmental problems: pollution of reservoirs, accumulation of poisonous substances, including cancerogenic, household garbage and waste, air pollution. However many of the low-molecular compounds created by the human being (weed and pest-killer chemicals, detergent agents) and high-molecular polymers were found steady and do not decay by microorganisms, that is required the development of more advanced technologies. With development and intensification of industrial and agricultural activity in the XX-th century limits of natural efficiency of biosphere began to realised, - natural resources, energy sources are petered, deficiency of food, pure water and air is more and more felt. Environmental contamination in many regions has reached the critical limit. All these problems were generated by scientific and technical progress of a society and should solved also with the use of advanced achievements. The ecology problem cannot be solved in scales of one country or group of the countries. The harmful anthropogenous pollution maked in industrially developed regions and countries, as a result of natural circulation of water and air weights extend on all territory of the Earth, up to both poles, get into depths of oceans, reach stratospheres. Many of the chemical substances created by the human being show biological activity: possess mutagen, cancerogenic, teratogenic properties, break structure of the cells. In table 1 presented a number of the substances possessing dangerous effect to the person.
Environmental pollution broadly refers to the presence of undesirable substances in the environment which are harmful to man and other organisms. There has been a significant increase in the levels of harmful environmental pollution mostly due to direct or indirect human activities in recent past. The major sources of environmental pollution are industries, agricultural and other anthropogenic and biogenic sources etc. The pollutants are chemical, biological and physical in nature. Controlling the environmental pollution and the conservation of environment and biodiversity and controlling environmental pollution are the major focus areas of all the countries around the world. In this context, the importance and impact of biotechnological approaches and the implications of biotechnology has to be thoroughly evaluated. There have been serious concerns regarding the use of biotechnological products and the impact assessment of these products due to their interaction with the environmental factors.
The environmental impact assessment system requires proponents to foresee possible environmental impacts when a development project is being planned, and to conduct an environmental assessment. However, debate continues on exactly what kinds of environmental protection measures are needed and how they should be integrated into a given project to achieve desirable environmental results. Actions to deal with global warming and to prevent ozone layer depletion are gaining momentum, but currently available technologies may not be enough to meet the required targets. Technological advances are needed in order to make progress in solving these issues, as well as with the problem of dioxins. New developments are also needed in technologies for pollution removal and environmental restoration, in cases where environmental pollution has already been generated or is already accumulating in the environment.
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Lorenz K. Evolution and Modification of Behavior. L., 1966 Immelman K. Introduction to Ethology//N.-Y.-London: Plenum Press. 1980. Jarrard L. E. On the role of the hippocampus in learning and memory in the rat// Behav. neural bid. 1993. V. 60. P. 9~26. Jerison H. J. Animal intelligence and encephalization//Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. L. 1985. V. 308. P. 21-35. Jones Т., Kamil A. C. Tool-making and tool-using in the Northern blue jay//Science 1973. V. 180. No. 4090. P. 1076-1078. ... [читать подробенее]
Content Відкрийте Збірник вправ і виконайте Вправу 13 Таким чином, XIX ст. стало періодом справжнього національного відродження: зросла національна свідомість українців, значних успіхів досягла українська культура. Національно-визвольний рух, як у Наддніпрянській, так і... [читать подробенее]
Content Глоссарий Жеткізуші – м&... [читать подробенее]
Organizer and Chair: Michele Thompson, Southern Connecticut State University Discussant: Lewis Pyenson, University of Southwestern Louisiana Recently Asia has played an important part in widening the fields of medical and scientific history beyond the thematic and theoretical factors which located these disciplines firmly in Europe and North America. It can also be said that familiarity with history of science and medicine has provided new avenues of investigation for scholars whose geographic... [читать подробенее]
LECTURE 1 – BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELT METHODOLOGY: Aims & objectives: · To introduce the aims of the course, the place of the course in the curriculum, and key concepts of ELT; · Students should be able to identify definitions and make a list of ELT topics they will study in this course. Key terms: Discipline, course, approach, method, technique, ELT Brief summary: · Introduction to the course objectives and ELT-related topics and questions This course should involve... [читать подробенее]
Towing Antifreeze Brake fluid Power steering fluid Leaking antifreeze often leaves a crystalline deposit like this. When all else fails, you may find yourself having to get a tow home - or of course you may be helping somebody else. Long-distance recovery should only be done by a garage or breakdown service. For shorter distances, DIY towing using another car is easy enough, but observe the following points: • Use a proper tow-rope - they are not expensive. The... [читать подробенее]
БАЗОВА ПЛАН Мета ПЛАН Мета ПЛАН Мета ПЛАН Мета ПЛАН Мета Освітня (навчальна): поглиблення знань студентів і слухачів магістратури з питань міжнародних стандартів прав людини та вивчення цих стандартів, викладених у відповідних... [читать подробенее]
Plan of the lecture Введение Введение План лекции Изучить самостоятельно: 1. Высота точки, расположенной на поверхности Земли. 2. Виды высот полета 3. Уровни отсчета высот. 4. Порядок перевода давления с уровня QNH на QFE. 5. Погрешности барометрических... [читать подробенее]
Adjective categories English and Russian adjectives: the main typological characteristics and the category of the degree of quality 4 classes of Rus adj: 1. expressing quality – qualitative (большой, тонкий) 2. expressing quality through its relation to other things and actions, denoting a property of an object through the relation to other object or predicate (e.g.Москва-московский, каменный-стена, весенний день –... [читать подробенее]