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Section 5

GRAMMAR pages

Translate the following sentences.

1. Мы собираемся провести данный эксперимент на следующей неделœе.

2. Птенцы деревенской ласточки (Slirundo rustica) оперились и вот-вот вылетят из гнезда.

3. Доклад профессора Северцева состоится завтра в 11.00.

4. Пройдет 8 лет и данный лиственный лес непременно станет смешанным.

5. В случае если рядовой павиан в присутствии вожака первым подходит к пище или ухаживает за самками, значит, он собирается бросить ему вызов.

6. Это единственный источник воды в радиусе 20 километров. Стоит только подождать, и здесь побывают всœе местные животные.

7. Цветы ястребинки откроются ровно в 6 часов утра, еще Линней использовал их в качестве биологических часов.

Неопределœенный артикль A/ An

A + согласный звук An + гласный звук

А/anиспользуется:

· С существительными, упоминаемыми в речи впервые. I saw a bird in the tree. I’ve found an umbrella in the wardrobe.

· При отнесении существительного к какому-то классу однородных предметов. (Но не к виду или роду в биологии!См. раздел «Определœенный артикль The»). An antelope is a mammal.

· С существительным, определяемым прилагательным. Kate is a beautiful girl.

· С существительным, определяемым словами, выражающими количество: a dozen/a hundred/afew /alittle/ a lot There are a dozen eggs in this box.

· Вместо per. I’m paid four hundred pounds a week.

· С глаголами be and have (got). I have a dog. It is an Alsatian.

Определœенный артикль The

Theиспользуется:

· с существительными, которые ранее уже упоминались в речи. I can show you my two sisters. The girl on the right is Susan, the girl on the left is Ann.

· с существительными, которые ранее не упоминались, однако очевидны из контекста. Where is the money, I gave you yesterday?

41) The book I told you about is on sale now.

· перед существительными, единственными в своём роде, напр., the Sun/ the Moon/ the centre of the city. TheMoon revolves round theEarth.

· перед существительными в единственном числе, обозначающими биологический род или вид.

42) The kangaroo is a national symbol of Australia.

· если существительное определяется порядковым числительным или прилагательным в превосходной степени.

The first wealth is health.

This is the shortest way to the station.

· перед существительными, обозначающими вещество, если речь идет об определœенном количестве этого вещества, что можно видеть из контекста.

Pass the milk, please. The water in the glass is very cold.

· перед существительными, обозначающими части суток.

I get up at seven in the morning.

· с географическими названиями рек (the Volga), морей (the Baltic Sea), океанов (the Pacific), каналов (the Panama Canal), горных цепей (the Urals), групп островов (the Bahamas), пустынь (the Gobi), стран, если в название страны входит существительное, определяющее ее государственный строй, как, напр., states, republic, emirates и т.д. (the United States of America), или если название страны представляет собой существительное во множественном числе (the Netherlands).

· при обозначении специфических объектов.

43) I’ve seenthe Leaning Tower of Pisa.

· перед существительными в словосочетаниях с предлогами ofи which.Moscow is the capital of Russia.

· c титулами (the Pope, the President, the Prince of Wales) Но: опускается, если за титулом следует имя собственное (President Medvedev)

· с названиями кинотеатров (the Odeon), театров (the Royal Shakespeare Theatre), музеев (the Hermitage), галерей (the Tretiakov gallery), газет (the Times), кораблей (the Titanic)

· с названиями музыкальных инструментов и танцев (the piano, the waltz)

· перед фамилиями, употребленными во множественном числе для обозначения членов одной и той же семьи, перед названиями групп (the Ivanovs, the Beatles)

· перед названиями народов, национальностей (the Japanese)

· перед прилагательными, которые выступают в предложении в роли существительных для обозначения группы людей: the poor/ the sick/ the young/the disabled/ the unemployed/ thehomeless и т.д.

· перед словами beach, station, cinema, theatre, coast, country(side), ground, jungle, seaside, weather, shop, world, city, sea и т.д. I like spending weekends in thecountryside.

Нулевой артикль используется:

· с неисчисляемыми существительными, а также с исчисляемыми существительными общего значения во множественном числе. I hate spiders. Unemploymentis a serious phenomenon.

· с именами собственными.

44) Ann studies in Moscow.

· со средствами транспорта͵ когда мы говорим о них в общем (by train/ byplain/ bycar/ on foot). He travels by plane a lot. (Но: He got on board the plane to London)

· с названиями болезней.

45) He has got cancer (malaria). Но flu/ the flu, measles/ the measles, mumps/ the mumps.

46)


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