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Plants

Text 1

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Тканью принято называть группа клеток, структурно и функционально взаимосвязанных друг с другом, сходных по происхождению, строению и выполняющих определœенные функции в организме. Ткани возникли у высших растений в связи с выходом на сушу и наибольшей специализации достигли у покрытосœеменных, у которых их выделяют до 80 видов. Важнейшими тканями растений являются образовательные, покровные, проводящие, механические и основные. Οʜᴎ бывают простыми и сложными. Простые ткани состоят из одного вида клеток (к примеру, колленхима, меристема), а сложные — из различных по строению клеток, выполняющих кроме базовых и дополнительные функции (эпидерма, ксилема, флоэма и др.).

1. Blink several times and try to get the dust out of your .....

2. A patient started breathing again with the help of artificial .......

3. Coughing is a symptom of various ......

4. When you drink too much coffee your hands .....

5. When it is hot you......

6. The puppy is ...... because it is cold and frightened.

7. The ..... should be swallowed with some amount of water.

A

Plants - (kingdom Plantae), multicellular, eukaryotic life form fundamentally characterized by (1) an almost exclusively photosynthetic mode of nutrition, in which the plant produces chemical energy (in the form of sugars) from water, minerals, and carbon dioxide with the aid of pigments and the radiant energy of the Sun, (2) essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions called meristems, (3) cells that contain cellulose in their walls and are therefore more or less rigid, (4) the absence of organs of locomotion, resulting in a more or less stationary existence, (5) the absence of sensory and nervous systems, and (6) life histories that show an alteration of haploid and diploid generations (the dominance of one over the other is taxonomically significant).

B

Angiosperms - any member of the more than 250,000 species of flowering plants, the largest and most diverse group within the kingdom Plantae. Angiosperms represent approximately 80 percent of all the known green plants now living. The angiosperms are vascular seed plants in which the ovule (egg) is fertilized and develops into a seed in an enclosed hollow ovary. The ovary itself is usually enclosed in a flower, that part of the angiospermous plant that contains the male or female reproductive organs or both. Fruits are derived from the maturing floral organs of the angiospermous plant and are therefore characteristic of angiosperms.

C

Angiosperms have evolved specialized cells and tissues that carry out these functions and have further evolved specialized vascular tissues that translocate the water and nutrients to all areas of the plant body. The specialization of the plant body, which has evolved as an adaptation to a principally terrestrial habitat, includes extensive root systems that anchor the plant and absorb water and minerals from the soil; a stem that supports the growing plant body; and leaves, which are the principal sites of photosynthesis for most angiospermous plants. Another significant evolutionary advancement over the nonvascular and the more primitive vascular plants is the presence of localized regions for plant growth, called meristems and cambia, which extend the length and width of the plant body, respectively. Except under certain conditions, these regions are the only areas in which cell division takes place in the plant body, although cell differentiation continues to occur over the life of the plant.

The angiosperms dominate the Earth's surface and vegetation in more environments, particularly terrestrial habitats, than any other group of plants. As a result, angiosperms are the most important ultimate source of food for birds and mammals, including humans. In addition, the flowering plants are the most economically important group of green plants, serving as a source of pharmaceuticals, fibre products, timber, ornamentals, and other commercial products.

D

Bryophytes - nonvascular plants, in which all cells in the plant body participate in every function necessary to support, nourish, and extend the plant body (e.g. photosynthesis, and cell division). Bryophytes are among the simplest of the terrestrial plants. Most representatives lack complex tissue organization, yet they show considerable diversity in form. They are widely distributed throughout the world and are relatively small compared with most seed-bearing plants. Most are 2–5 centimetres tall or, if reclining, generally less than 10 centimetres long. The phylum Bryophyta includes three main evolutionary lines: the mosses, the liverworts , and the hornworts.

E

In gymnosperms (e.g., conifers), the other large group of vascular seed plants, the seeds do not develop enclosed within an ovary but are usually borne exposed on the surfaces of reproductive structures, such as cones, that originally produced the spores. It was in 1825 that the Scottish botanist Robert Brown first distinguished gymnosperms from angiosperms. Currently, about 60–70 genera are recognized, with a total of 700–800 species.

F

Lower vascular plants - any of the spore-bearing vascular plants, including the ferns, club mosses and horsetails.

Vascular plants are those that possess a specialized conducting system for the transport of water, minerals, and food materials, as opposed to the more primitive bryophytes—mosses and liverworts—which lack such a system.

These are not an economically important group. Though they are used locally by peoples around the world for medicines and food, their greatest value today is in horticulture (ferns). Their remains, however, provide the bulk of the world's coal beds, and their relatively simple structure and life cycle make them extremely valuable to researchers in understanding the overall picture of plant structure and evolution.

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