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Биология GRAMMAR pages Section 14
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Translate the following sentences into English.

You have to make a report about a conference.

Write the following sentences in the Reported speech, mind Sequence of Tenses.

Put the verb in italics in the Past and rewrite the sentences, paying attention to Sequence of Tenses.

Exercises

1) Nick asks when fresh newspapers will be brought.

2) I am asked when the lecture begins.

3) She is sure that they got tickets for the concert yesterday.

4) I hope that your brother will come to our party.

5) I think he has passed his examinations very well.

6) He says that he no longer lives there.

7) We know that he is busy now.

8) She says she is going to apply for the job.

1) I said to him: “Don’t open the window”.

2) “Stay in bed for two days”, the doctor said.

3) “The experiment is to be stopped”, the physiologist said.

4) All my friends asked me “How long did you stay in the South?”

5) I asked my friends “Will you attend the lecture on ‘Conditioned Reflexes’?”

6) “The operation was very difficult”, the physician reported.

7) “Can you prove your idea?” the reporter asked me.

8) “This is absolutely senseless!” my colleague exclaimed.

88) The subject of the conference: “How we can save the environment”. Tell about the following suggestions, using such phrases as “Scientist from Brasilia said…. African conservationists propose…. Dr Nert claims that…. Participants suggested….. etc”.

1) We protect wild animals`natural habitats.

2) Some animals may become extinct.

3) Governments should reduce exhaust of harmful fumes.

4) Can we put stricter laws into effect?

5) We encourage people to use environmentally friendly products.

6) We don`t pollute the water or damage the ozon layer.

7) More people should use public transport or bicycles.

8) What is done to encourage factories to recycle?

89)

1) Он сказал, что будет делать доклад в понедельник.

2) Меня спросили, опытный ли он преподаватель.

3) Твоя сестра сказала, что видела новую пьесу на прошлой неделœе.

4) Докладчик спросил нас, идем ли мы на лекцию.

5) Мать велœела детям не трогать спички.

6) Мы попросили физиолога рассказать о его новом эксперименте.

7) Агентство «Рейтер» сообщило, что были проведены уникальные опыты с корой головного мозга.

8) Репортеры интересовались, много ли времени потребовалось ученому, чтобы сформировать у мыши условный рефлекс на звук.

9) Ученый ответил, что много времени у него отняло торможение.

10) Журналисты спросили, каковы достоинства нового способа исследования внешнего и внутреннего торможения условного рефлекса.

Reported speech

Косвенная речь используется, когда крайне важно передать слова третьего лица. Для передачи косвенной речи часто используются такие глаголы как: to tell, to say, to speak, to notice, to remark, to exclaim, to add, to inform, to remind, to explain и др.

Прямая речь Косвенная речь Пример
Present simple Past simple Nick said: ”Sometimes I come home late”. Nick said that sometimes he came home late.
Present continuous Past continuous Nick said:”My sister is studying French “. Nick said that his sister was studying French.
Present perfect simple Past perfect Nick said:”My friend has just arrived from Paris”. Nick said that his friend had just arrived from Paris.
Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous Nick said:”I`ve been running this business for 3 years.” Nick said he had been running that business for 3 years.
Past simple Past perfect simple Nick said:”I didn`t write that letter”. Nick said that he had not written that letter.
Past continuous Past perfect continuous Nick said :”I was watching TV yesterday evening. Nick said he had been watching TV the previous day.
Past perfect simple Past perfect simple Nick said:” I`d read lots of articles before I completed my report.” Nick said that he had read lots of articles before he completed his report.
Past perfect continuous Past perfect continuous Nick said:”I had been looking for that article for weeks before I found it”. Nick said he had been looking for that article for weeks before he found it.
Will Would Nick said:”I will go to Italy.” Nick said he would go to Italy.
Can Could Nick said: “I can write the article”. Nick said that he could write the article.
Must\have to Had to Nick said:”I have to leave early”. Nick said he had to leave early.
may might Nick said:” I may return later”. Nick said that he might return later.

При использовании косвенной речи часто крайне важно изменить слово или словосочетание, указывающее на место или время:

Прямая речь Косвенная речь
here there
now\at the moment then\at the moment
tomorrow the next\following day
tonight that night
next week\month\year the following week\month\year
yesterday the day before\the previous day
last week\month\year the week\month\year before the previous week\month\year
ago before\previously

Для того , чтобы сформулировать прямой вопрос (yes\no question),крайне важно использовать слова if, whether:

“Do you live here?” he asked.

He asked me whether I lived there.


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